Tuesday, December 24, 2019

United States And Canada Physical Geography Essay

United States Canada Physical Geography The great plains are located to the west of the Interior Plains. The great plains consist of a large, flat, and treeless area of land. The nation’s â€Å"breadbasket† is known as the Great Plains! These plains are famous for their raising of livestock and agriculture. A large range of mountains that are found west of the Great Plains are known as the Rocky Mountains. This mountain range extends from Alaska to New Mexico and is considered the younger of the two large ranges of mountains in the United States. The Great Lakes connect the middle of the US to the Atlantic Ocean by the St. Lawrence River. That creates one of the world’s major shipping routes. There are five great lakes, and they are Lake Superior, Lake Huron, Lake Ontario, Lake Michigan, and Lake Erie. The Great Lakes are rich in mineral resources such as coal and iron. These lakes are also the center of urban and industrial growth. The river that is the longest and busiest river system in the United States and starts off as a small stream in Minnesota and empties into the Gulf of Mexico is known as the Mississippi River. The flat and treeless area that spreads from the Appalachian Mountains to three hundred miles to the west of the Mississippi River are the Interior Plains. These plains stretch into parts of Canada, where the ground is covered in permafrost. Where there is no permafrost, these areas produce different varieties of animal and plant life along with someShow MoreRelatedThe Canadian Culture Essay919 Words   |  4 Pagesown special way of life. Canada’s in particular can be considered unique because Canada is a cultural mosaic, which allows elements of many cultures to be integrated into one. Canada’s culture has many influences because the numerous people who immigrate here are encouraged to keep their culture. 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The neighboring countries are Canada (north) and Mexico (south). The geography of the United States is varied with mountains in the west (the Rockies), and a broad central plain, and low mountain in the east (the Appalachians). The government system is a constitution-based federal system. The USA is home to a variety of cultures, race, tradition and extreme sports. The United States is dividedRead MoreAmerican History : The Colonial Present1203 Words   |  5 Pages Modernity plays an intricate role in Canadian society and the way in which it was built. One aspect of modernity that is particularly important to Canada’s colonial history would be with respect to the First Nations population of Canada. This paper will define and work through the concept of modernity and technologies of modernity in relation to Tracey Deer’s documentary Mohawk Girls. 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Monday, December 16, 2019

A Comparative Analysis of Community-Based Tourism in Uganda and Kenya Free Essays

string(123) " tourist products in Uganda are nature-based and are linked to wildlife game reserves, forest reserves and national parks\." 1. Introduction As pointed out by Tasciet al (2013), the contribution made by tourism to the growth of the economy can be enormous. Given the great potential of the tourism sector, several models have been developed over the past few years. We will write a custom essay sample on A Comparative Analysis of Community-Based Tourism in Uganda and Kenya or any similar topic only for you Order Now Community-based tourism, developed in the 1990’s by authors including Pearce (1992) has been suggested to provide for sustainability in the industry (Beeton 2006). Community-based tourism (CBT) can be defined as a bottom-up approach that ensures the involvement of the local communities in the planning process (Koster 2007). Given the potential of CBT, many rural areas are increasingly relying on tourism as an alternative to economic development, replacing their former reliance on forestry, mining and agriculture (Lopez-Guzman et al. 2011). Rural areas are considered important tourist destinations as they appeal to many tourists (Butler et al. 1998). This paper conducts a comparative analysis of community based tourism between Uganda and Kenya. The paper will first define the concept and then explore the demographics and history of tourism in Kenya and Uganda, and finally examine the socio-economic and environmental impacts. A comparative analysis will be done between the two countries by highlighting similarities and differences. 3. Community-Based Tourism Model: Overview The notion of CBT can be traced back to the alternative approaches developed in the 1970s which were concerned with issues beyond the strictly economic (Tefler 2009). During this period, development in the tourism sector began to focus more on community-based initiatives and stressed more on the participation of the local individuals (Giampiccoli Kalis 2012). The concept brought together issues of sustainability, local empowerment and self-reliance. CBT has come about due to the desire for a more inclusive approach to planning that incorporates local values (Koster 2007). The concept of CBT has suffered from competing and ill-thought-out definitions. For example, Suansri (2003) and Ramsa Mohd (2004) view CBT as a tourism venture wholly managed by the local communities. On the other hand, Scheyvens (2002) and Mearns (2003) are inclined to see it as involving a degree of participation or partnership with other stakeholders playing a part. Perhaps the problem with defining the concept can be attributed to the fact that CBT may mean different things to different people. Despite debate over meanings, the CBT framework used in this paper is that initiated, planned, controlled, owned and managed by the local people with the aim of meeting the needs of the entire community. Private enterprises at the micro-level can be considered as part of the definition if the focus is on communal well-being rather than individual profit. The benefits should accrue to the local community and CBT should respect and preserve local culture. 2. Background to Tourism in Kenya and Uganda: Demographics, History, Socio-Economic Considerations and Environmental Sustainability Tourism plays an important role in Kenya, accounting for 10% of GDP and 9% of employment. It is also increasingly profitable with a 17.9% rise in earnings from the sector between 2009 and 2010 (Ndivo et al 2012). Amongst African countries, Kenya is currently ranked 5th for international tourist visits, with approximately 1.5 million international tourists in 2008 (Bunyere et al. 2009). Because it has the potential to generate employment and prosperity, it has been given an increasingly important role in national socio-economic agendas, with a number of key policies and strategies created including the National Tourism Master Plan (Ministry of Tourism Kenya 2009), Tourism Policy (Government of Kenya 2010) and Tourism Bill 2005 (Ndivo et al 2012). Although there is potential to develop tourism around the country, historically interest has centred on the beaches of the south coast, national parks and game reserves (Ndivo et al 2012). According to a survey conducted by the EU, 63% of EU visitors in Kenya chose coastal areas as their tourist destination (Kibicho 2004). Wildlife is also a popular attraction, with70% of the tourism earnings in Kenya coming from wildlife-based tourism (Bunyere et al, 2009). Given the critical importance of the tourism sector in Kenya, it is extremely vital to protect and conserve these significant resources. Indeed, conservation policies and collaborative schemes have been already been put in place. There is a large area of protected land, and 10% of Kenya’s land has been designated as national park and game reserve land (Akama et al., 2011). Critical biodiversity areas and the rich cultural coastal region form the flourishing tourism sector in Kenya. Although measures to protect Kenya’s ecology have been put in place, there are concerns over sustainability, and the country continues to experience accelerated decline and destruction of critical biodiversity areas. There has been a decline in wildlife population in national parks and game reserves at rates similar to non-protected areas, indicating the state’s inability to protect critical biodiversity (Akama et al., 2011). Moreover, coastal tourism which has for decades dominated has experienced a rapid decline in the recent years owing to the tribal clashes that have erupted (Cheung 2012). Kenya’s coastal tourism industry experienced a period of unprecedented dismal performance with 56% of the hotels closing in 2008 (Akama et al., 2011). Although much of the violence that occurred was tribal in nature, findings indicate that lack of community participation and involvement in tourism activities in the coast was a major factor contributing to these ethnic clashes. Had the local communities been involved in the tourism activities, such ethnic flare-ups would have been averted. The ethnic flare-ups, land use conflict between local communities and wildlife managers, threats of extinction of species and the apparent inability of the state to protect critical biodiversity areas have led to a new realization of the importance of community based tourism in Kenya (Korir et al 2013). Considerable effort has now been made to provide support to CBT enterprises including donor funding. Further, a framework that gives impetus to successful and sustainable operations of CBT ventures has been linked into the overall national policy (Akama et al. 2011). History of Ugandan tourism sector and socio-economic contributions Tourism also has a role to play in the Ugandan economy. Similar to Kenya, main tourist products in Uganda are nature-based and are linked to wildlife game reserves, forest reserves and national parks. You read "A Comparative Analysis of Community-Based Tourism in Uganda and Kenya" in category "Essay examples" Other attractions include cultural heritage, community development, eco-tourism and faith-based tourism (Paul, 2004). The importance of involving the local communities in tourism activities is also evident in Uganda. Conflicts between the locals and the government have largely been due to their lack of involvement in planning and development activities. For example, after the establishment of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in 1992, conflicts arose between the locals and the park. The conflicts that led to the burning up of 5% of the park by the local community was evidence enough that the park would not be protected without consent and local support (Mujuni et al. 2003). A collaborative management plan was however set up which promoted participation of the locals in park management and revenue sharing. As a result, conflict ended and the locals committed themselves to protecting and preserving the park. The experience showed the importance of local community involvement in tourism activities. Uganda used to be a key leader in tourism in the past. In the early, 1960s Uganda used to be the main tourism destination in East Africa(Frederic, 2011). However, the unprecedented turmoil of the 1970’s and early 80’s led to a decline in the tourism industry (Paul, 2004). As a result, Uganda lost its position as a top tourist destination in East Africa to Kenya. However, the government that took over in the mid 80’s restored peace and stability (frederic, 2011). Since then, the sector has been steadily increasing despite lagging behind Kenya in terms of its contribution to GDP. Unlike in Kenya where tourism contributes around 10% of the GDP, Ugandan tourism industry is estimated to contribute 4% of the total GDP(Sanchez-Canizares, 2013). Nonetheless, there has been an increasing trend in tourism with the number of international tourist visits increasing from 468,000 in 2005 to over 940,000 in 2010 (Paul, 2004). Given that both countries are still developing, it is worthwhile to examine some of the similarities and differences between the two countries. Comparative analysis of community based tourism between Kenya and Uganda Similarities Socio-economic impact The two countries share certain things in common starting with the embracement and recognition of community based tourism as an important tool for reducing poverty. Both countries have embraced and given emphasis to development of community based tourism as an important tool for poverty reduction (Sanchez-Canizares, 2013). There are several community based tourism projects in both Kenya and Uganda. Some of the popular community based tourism projects in Kenya are: the Kimana Community Wildlife Sanctuary, Mwaluganje, Sera Conservancy and Kalacha Bandas in Marsabit among many other(Tang, 2013) Similarly, Ugandan ministry of tourism has laid emphasis on the importance of community based tourism in the country. The idea of community based conservation has become the focus of the industry. Perhaps this has been driven by the recognition of the benefits of involving the local community in tourism development including: poverty reduction, decline in conflicts with the ministry over land used and reduced poaching activities (frederic, 2011) Some of the successful community based projects in Uganda include Lake Nkuruba Nature Sanctuary, Buhoma Community Restcamp, Mgahinga Community Campground, Busingiro and Kaniyo Pabidi community project, Ruboni Community Campground and Bigodi Wetland Sanctuary(Zeppel, 2006). Participation of the locals in these projects is high. For example, in Bigodi Wetland Sanctuary, the local people are involved in community-guided walks and bird watching tours (Zeppel 2006). Both countries seem to be embracing community tourism as an important tool for reducing poverty. Another similarity can be seen with the funding of these projects. Most of these projects are donor funded. Kenya is heavily reliant on donor funding. In fact, almost 100% of community based tourism development activities in Kenya is donor funded. For example, funds from USAID and World Bank were used to set up an electric fence around the Kimana Community Wildlife Sanctuary (Jonathan et al. 2013). Mwaluganje, another community based tourism development activity, was established through donor funding. Sera Conservancy that was formed to empower the local Samburu communities in Kenya was established with funds from USAID. The EU has also played a major role in funding community based tourism development in Kenya. In 2000, a massive grant of 5.5 million Euros was released by the EU which saw the establishment of 16 community based tourism developments in Kenya (Ruhiu 2007). Other key players funding CBT in Kenya include international bodies such as the UNDP, conservation based NGOs such as AWF, Pact Kenya and WWF; and national agencies such as Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) and Kenya Forest Research Institute (KEFRI) (Jonathan et al. 2013). It is clear that donor funding has played a major role in the development of community based tourism in Kenya. The government’s role has merely been the provision of an enabling environment such as security, programme coordination and policy formulation (Ruhiu 2007). Similarly, Community Based Tourism Enterprises (CBTE’s) in Uganda rely predominantly on donor funding. The Mgahinga Bwindi community project was established with funds from the World BANK (Mujuni et al. 2003). Moreover, the two major associations Uganda Community Tourism Association (UCOTA) and (NACOBTA) in charge of promoting community based tourism in Uganda by providing loans and training to the local communities are predominantly donor funded. NACOBTA is 99% donor funded whereas UCOTA is 44.8% donor funded (Elisa et al., 2001) UCOTA empowers the local Ugandan communities to improve their livelihood through participating in sustainable tourism development activities. The association helps the local communities by aiding in the sale of handcrafts, providing accommodation, and tour guiding. Furthermore, both countries have witnessed improved livelihoods due to community based tourism activities. For example, the Mgahinga Bwindi Community Project in Uganda has improved the livelihoods of the locals living around Bwindi Impenetrable National Park. Many of the local population living nearby have been employed as park rangers and ‘porters’ (labourers). The community has also benefited through improved infrastructure including roads, education and health facilities. About 60% of the Mgahinga Bwindi Impenetrable Forest Conservation Trust has been devoted towards development of local community projects (Adams Infield 2013). The local communities in Kenya have also benefited from employment and improved livelihoods. The locals living near Mwaluganje, Sera Conservancy and Kalacha Bandas in Marsabit have benefited from schools, clinics and boreholes which have been built by these projects (Ruhiu 2007). Further, pro-poor tourism have assisted women with bead making through provision of platform for selling their products. Whilst these benefits are encouraging, participation of the locals in both countries is still far from enough. Although some of the locals have managed to secure jobs and improve their livelihoods, most of them are paid low salaries, an equivalent of 30 pounds per month (Ruhiu 2007). This certainly doesn’t really improve their livelihood that much. In fact, critics have argued that community based tourism and tourism in general should not necessarily be relied on as a tool for poverty alleviation. According to them, tourism does not compete well with sectors such as agriculture which have higher potential of reducing poverty. Environment impact Also, community based tourism in both countries have led to positive impacts on the environment. For example, in Uganda, KAFRED has created awareness among the local communities bordering wetlands about the importance of protecting and preserving the environment (Adams Infield 2013). This has led to a reduction in encroachment and eucalyptus planting in the wetlands. Further programs such as the National Wetlands Program and Semliki conservation project which have risen from CBT activities have established village by-laws governing the use of wetlands (Adams Infield 2013). Environmental education has played a role in ensuring sustainability of tourism. Similarly, in Kenya, involvement of the local people in tourism activities has led to reduction in wildlife poaching and destruction of forests. Community wildlife and conservation ventures in Kenya have played a major role towards protecting the environment and preserving wildlife (Jonathan et al. 2013). Environment degradation has reduced and conservation measures strengthened with the help of the locals who are employed as park ranges and ‘porters’. Community based tourism and eco-tourism have led the way towards responsible travel with important environmental benefits. Differences Having highlighted the similarities, it is important to identify some of the differences in community based tourism between the two countries. One particular difference relates to the extent to which community based tourism is promoted. CBT in Uganda is only limited to areas within or along the forest reserves and national parks. Almost all of the community projects are within or along the forest reserves and national parks. For example, the Buhoma Community Restcamp is within the impenetrable Bwindi Forest national park. The Mgahinga Community Campground project lies next to Mgahinga Gorilla National Park (Zeppel 2006). Others including the Bigodi Wetland Sanctuary, Busingiro and Kaniyo community project and the Ruboni community campground are located along or near national parks and forest reserves (Zeppel 2006). Community based tourism activities in Uganda continue to be limited to areas lying within or along the national parks and forest reserves. This has been echoed by Industry operators who have highlighted ‘limited efforts to promoting community tourism at the national level’ as one of the main concern of tourism development in Uganda. In stark contrast, community based tourism is promoted at the national level as evident with the opening up of new areas of possibility such as sports tourism, eco tourism, adventure safaris, horse and camel safaris, walk tours, and cultural tourism among many others (Cobb 2006). Further, programs such as the Enterprise Development Program have been implemented across the country to build the local capacity and integrate communities into tourism development activities. Such programs ensure the mobilization of the community through seminars, debates, regional workshops and participatory trainings (Ruhiu 2007). Further the local communities are provided advisory services on product development and market access which helps strengthen growth of their enterprises (Cobb 2006). This has been driven by the realization of the potential of community based tourism to reduce poverty, and multiplier effects of the tourism sector as a whole in driving the economy. Perhaps another difference that can be pointed between CBT in Kenya and Uganda relates to the coastal attraction. While community based ecotourism ventures along the coastal region form the flourishing tourism sector in Kenya, Uganda being a landlocked country does not have any coastal attractions (Mulinda Wilbert 2009). Coastal attraction features provides Kenya with an edge over Uganda(Wilbert, 2009). Beaches, sun-basking, the aquatic life at the coast and rich culture that includes performances, dances and the contemporary ways of living of the coastal people make it a popular tourist destination. Another difference is related to the marketing and promotion of CBT activities. Unlike Uganda, Kenya has invested more in marketing and promotion of tourism activities. For example, last year, Kenya budgeted $34 million dollars for tourism promotion and marketing. This is in stark contrast with Uganda’s budget of only $90,000 (UIA 2014). While this may be seen as impacting on development in the overall sector, community based enterprises are also affected in terms of the number of visits and revenues generated from sale of products. Uganda’s funding of the sector remains very low despite the potential of becoming a multi-billion sector. The slow pace of tourism in Uganda can be attributed to the lack of identity at the international level. While Kenya has promoted their visibility at the international level, Uganda is still lagging behind in terms of investing fully in promotion of tourism. While CBT in Kenya has grown much faster than Uganda, it has not developed as expected owing to many factors including in adequate funds for marketing and promoting tourism, transparency and governance issues, lack of marketing skills and absence of a system for ensuring equitable sharing of the opportunities and benefits accruing from tourism activities. For example, while Kenya’s budget for promotion of tourism may be $34 million, the Kenya Tourism Board receives only $6 million. Further, funding remains a major problem in both Kenya and Uganda. Given that these countries are still developing, there are very limited financial resources for supporting CBTEs. Even when these finances are incorporated in government budgets, they are often inadequate to support CBT developments (Ruhiu, 2007). As a result, community based tourism has often relied on foreign investment which may lead to the rise of neo-colonial structures discussed above as foreign investors seek control of tourism resources. Whereas Kenya may be ahead of Uganda in terms of pro-tourism development, it is still far from being developed as it is still prone to failures resulting from limited funding, poor infrastructure development, lack of formal education, political influences and inadequate representation of the locals. CBT in Kenya still remains very low with lack of local representation in the workforce. While the industry may boast of over 500,000 jobs, the employment opportunities remain inequitably distributed (Cheung 2012). Most of the local communities are missing out on employment opportunities as these are being taken over by the outside workforce. According to a survey conducted by Bruyere et al. (2009), 64% of the local community members found the employment opportunities to be insufficient. Kenya’s community based approach to tourism development is still largely skewed to the interest of tourism (hotels, hospitality and service) with limited representation of the locals. There are also political considerations to take into account. For example, a neo-colonial structure has emerged within the industry as some foreign investors seek control of tourism resources. (Cheung 2012). This has resulted in social and political disempowerment of the locals as neo-colonial structures have made it increasingly difficult for them to participate in the planning and decision making process. Although there exist more opportunities for local entrepreneurs to invest in the industry compared to Uganda especially given the ongoing development agenda that encourages of the growth SMEs, a divide of power continues to disengage and disempower the local communities. The majority of Kenyans continue to live below the poverty line with the highest incidence of poverty occurring in tourist destination areas. 5. Conclusion The above has looked at the notion of CBT with particular reference to the situation in Kenya and Uganda. From the analysis, both countries seem to share certain commonalities and differences as well. For example, community based tourism is embraced in both countries and recognized as an important tool for reducing poverty. Also, both countries are heavily reliant on donor funding. Moreover, the locals in both countries have experienced improvement in their livelihoods through employment opportunities, and access to school and health facilities. Further, Pro-poor tourism has assisted women with bead making through provision of platform for selling products. Both countries have also seen improvement in their environments which has resulted due to community development projects and conservation ventures. In Uganda, programs such as the National Wetlands Program and Semliki conservation project have established village by-laws governing the use of wetlands. Community wildlife and conservation ventures in Kenya have played a major role towards protecting the environment and preserving wildlife. There are also sharp differences in CBT developments in both countries. For example, community based tourism activities in Uganda are limited to areas lying within or along the national parks and forest reserves. In stark contrast, community based tourism in Kenya is promoted at the national level as evident with the opening up of new areas of possibility such as sports tourism, eco tourism, adventure safaris, horse and camel safaris, walk tours, and cultural tourism. Another difference is that Uganda being a landlocked country does not have coastal attractions. On the other hand, beaches, sun-basking, the aquatic life at the Kenyan coast and rich culture that includes performances, dances and the contemporary ways of living of the coastal people make it a popular tourist destination. Additionally, Kenya has invested more in marketing and promotion of tourism activities compared to Uganda. While Kenya has promoted their visibility at the international level, Uganda is still lagging behind in terms of investing fully in promotion of tourism. While CBT in Kenya has grown much faster than Uganda, it has not developed as expected owing to many factors including in adequate funds for marketing and promoting tourism, transparency and governance issues, lack of marketing skills and absence of a system for ensuring equitable sharing of the opportunities and benefits accruing from tourism activities. Nonetheless, the future of tourism in both these two countries lies in community based tourism. The potential of CBT to reduce poverty and make the sector sustainable is enormous. Not only can CBT help in enhancing biodiversity conservation but it can also generate income and bring economic growth to the local communities. 6. References Adams, W. and Infield, M. 2013. Community conservation at mgahinga gorilla national park, uganda. Institute for Development Policy and Management, Manchester. Akama, J. and Starry, P., 2000. Cultural tourism in Africa: strategies for new millennium.Africa International Conference, Mombasa, Kenya. Beeton, S (2006) Community Development Through Tourism, USA: Landlinks Press Bruyere, B.L., Beh, A.W. and Lelengula, G., 2009. ‘Differences in perceptions of communication, tourism benefits, and management issues in a protected area of rural Kenya’. Environmental Management, 43, 49-59 Butler, R., Hall, C.M. Jenkins, J. 1998. ‘Continuity and change in rural tourism: Introduction’ in R. Butler, C.M. Hall and J. Jenkins (eds) Tourism and Recreation in Rural Areas (New York: Wiley) 3-17 Cheung, H., 2012.Tourism in kenya’s national parks: a cost-benefit analysis. Kenya Giampiccoli, A. and Kalis, J.H., 2012. Community-based tourism and local culture: the case of the amaMpondo, vol. 10 (1), pp. 173-188 Frederic, T., Grace, B, and Celestine, k. 2011. Opportunity study: Uganda inclusive tourism. Jonathan, T. B., Nelly, J., and Nehemia, K., 2013. ‘An examination of Kenya’s outbound tourism to ugandan destinations: towards re-thinking Kenya’s tourism product development and marketing’. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development 4(8). Kibicho, W., 2004. Community tourism: a lesson from Kenya’s coastal region. Journal of Vacation Marketing, Vol. 10, pp.33-42 Korir, J, Muchiri, J and Kamwea, J 2013. ‘Wildlife Based Tourism, Ecology and Sustainability of Protected Areas in Kenya’ Journal of Natural Sciences Research 3:3, Koster, R.L., 2007.An evaluation of community based tourism development: how theory intersects practice. Priarie Perspectives Lopez-Guzman, T. and Sanchez-Canizares, S. and Pavon, V., 2011.‘Community based tourism in developing countries: a case study’. An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism, vol.6 (1), pp 69-84 Mearns, K., 2003. Commmunity based tourism. The key to empowering the Sankuyo community in Botswana. Africa Insight, 33:29-32 Mujuni C.N., K. N., P. van de Kop, A. Baldascini and S. Grouwels 1., 2003. ‘Community-based forest enterprise development for improved livelihoods and biodiversity conservation: A case study from bwindi world heritage site, uganda’. In World Forestry Congress. Canada, Quebec City. Ndivo RM, Waudo, J N and Waswa F 2012. ‘Examining Kenya’s Tourist Destinations’ Appeal: the Perspectives of Domestic Tourism Market.’. Journal of Tourism and Hospitality, 1, 103. OECD 2012.Tourism Trends and Policies, OECD Publishing, UK Paul, A. 2004. Tourism in a rural Ugandan village: impacts, local meaning and implications for development. Pergamon, New York. Pearce, D. 1992 ‘Alternative tourism: concepts, classifications and questions’, in Smith, V.L. and Eadington, W. R., (eds), Tourism Alternatives: Potentials and Problems in theDevelopment of Tourism, New York: John Wiley and Sons pp. 18–30. Rihiu, J.M., 2007. Capital for investing in community based tourism (CBT) – grants vs loans. National Ecotourism Conference Sanchez-Canizares, T. and Lopez_GuzmanL, 2013. Community – based tourism in developing countries: A case study Tourismos: An International Multidisciplinary Journal Of Tourism 6(1):69-84. Scheyvens, R., 2002. Tourism for development empowering community. Harlow: Prentice Hall Suansri, P., 2003. Community based tourism handbook.Responsible ecological social tour – REST project, Thailand. Tasci, A.D., semrad, K.J. and yilmaz, S., 2013. Community based tourism: finding the equilibrium in the COMCEC context setting the pathway for the future. Tang, K. 2013. Community based tourism. Singapore. Tefler, D.J., 2009. ‘Development studies and tourism’. In: Jamal, T. and Robinson, M. (eds). The SAGE handbook of tourism studies, London: SAGE Publications Zeppel, H. 2006. Indigenous Ecotourism: Sustainable Development and Management. CABI. How to cite A Comparative Analysis of Community-Based Tourism in Uganda and Kenya, Essay examples

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Accounting in Organizations for Citizenship -myassignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about theAccounting in Organizations for Citizenship. Answer: Introduction Modern day accounting is an intricate web of interlinked operational activities inclusive of internal and external factors. The revolution in todays supply chains has not diminished the requirement for corporate citizenship. Indeed, it requires citizenship which is even stronger, and efficient at including both parent firm and its several contractors, even if located offshores. The present report revolves around a computer manufacturing firm and the problems it is facing with some of its unethical suppliers. Accounting information assists users in making better and efficient decisions by considering financial aspects of the business. Financial information users can be internal or external. Description of major stakeholders and their requirements is enumerated as below: Suppliers Accounting Information allows suppliers to determine credibility of business. For this purpose they are required to assess liquidity position of business to know their working capital efficiency. The terms and conditions of credit are based on the financial status of the company, as it helps in analyzing their business position (Rodrigue, 2014). On the basis of this information they determine credit policy for trading transactions. Local communities Local communities are interested in accounting information so as to ensure that operational activities of business is ethical in order to protect the stakeholders interest. Considered information also helps in evaluating the tax returns reliability been filed on the behalf of business. For this purpose, they check financial statements and associated accounts. Customers Customers make use of accounting information in order to consider the business position and performance, especially, when they are involved for a long term, as it allows maintaining a balanced business source. For this purpose; they need information regarding growth in revenues and market based and same can be collected from the income statement. Employees Accounting information is required by employees to determine whether their job is secured or not (Collier, 2015). For this purpose; entire financial accounts are required by them with appropriate details and past records. This will assist them in determining future opportunities available to them as their growth is directly associated with the success of company. Shareholders Shareholders utilize accounting information for determining the profitability and feasibility of their investments. Also, accounting information allows them to consider the capability of the organization to pay out the dividends. It also helps in evaluating any approaches regarding the future. Proposed investors also need accounting information because they can consider the risks involved in investing and their returns (Cooper, 2017). Further, this information is significant to analyze the viability of investing in the organization, as they want to ensure either they can get an effective return on the investment before they offer financial resources to the organization. For this purpose, they need income statement, dividend provided by the company, payout ratios and overall value of the company as it will affect their revenue returns and capital value of investments. The supply chain of the company is illustrated below: The main stage where the social and environmental impacts are being triggered is the first stage in the companys supply chain, i.e. suppliers. The organization has been sourcing parts from China and Bangladesh as they are cheaper. The four impacts identified are listed below: Unsafe working conditions for the local staff of suppliers Low wages to the local staff of suppliers Physically demanding work Improper working hours and rest days All the above-mentioned impacts are socially detrimental. It is important for the organization to source its parts responsibly. In order to minimize such socially detrimental impacts, the company must strictly ask its suppliers to follow policies and have due diligence in place to ensure that the suppliers are producing the parts responsibly and ethically. Secondly, a diverse and ethical supply chain forms a critical component of the business. The company must collaborate with suppliers who share their goal of promoting a diverse manpower and seek vendors from different backgrounds (Jacobsen, 2011). Thirdly, supply chain transparency must be made imperative. The company should ask its suppliers to publish their sustainability report complying with all the standards on their website and annually update it. In addition to this, to ensure that the suppliers are implementing global standards and the companys policy commitments, the company must design capability building programs and man date all its suppliers to get involved in them. These programs are specially designed to enable the suppliers to surpass applicable global standards and rectify areas of concern, i.e. poor working conditions, low wage, and occupational safety (Dujon, Dillard and Brennan, 2013). Human trafficking, slavery and forced labor are the three major risks to supply chain ethics. It is very important to work with ethical suppliers, else a companys reputation can go for a toss. Primark is an example of how working with bad suppliers can have negative impacts on the business. Primark got embroiled in a controversy over the unfair treatment of sweatshop laborers in 2009 as the companys shareholders were preparing to celebrate strong profits. As per the study was done by War on Want charity, laborers making Primark clothes in Bangladesh were being paid so little that they were not even able to eat properly and were becoming malnourished (Hickman, 2009). They were working nearly 84 hours per week and were exposed to verbal threats. These workers were also banished from becoming part of a trade union. Moreover, an investigation done by BBC revealed that children as small as 11 were working for Indian suppliers of Primark. Though the company promised to reinforce its effort s to eliminate sweatshop labor, the evidences by War on Want suggested that improvements did not make any difference to the workers lives (McDougall, 2008). The parent company of Primark, Associated British Foods faced huge embarrassment because of the timing of this report. The company faced huge criticism in the wake of its record operating profits. Primarks customers reacted strongly to this news, and the fashion label came under heavy public scrutiny and negative light. The company ended up cutting ties with some of its very crucial suppliers due to heightening curiosity over its association with sweatshops (Hickman, 2009). Sustainability is required to be considered for making investment decisions to be ethical along with the consideration of profitability. The following concerns are covered under an accountants remit (Cheng, Green and Ko, 2014). Public and private sector accountants have an important role in promoting and decision making that assists companies to be more flexible. Thus for assisting in investment decision; the following process is required to be implemented by the accountant: Identify and implement opportunities, trends to the managements model, strategies and performance. Amalgamation of crucial normal and public issues of capital in the process of decision making. Considering the benefits of addressing issues regarding social and environmental like minimizing cost and increasing profits. Managing internal resources and procedures in order to certify what matters is measured and managed (Vesty, Oliver and Brooks, 2013). Connect both resources and strategies for value creation of stakeholders. Give reliability to data and information generated by efficient oversight and authority. Better communication and relationship must be maintained so as to guarantee transparency. The main elements of a sustainability project for the computer manufacturing company would be to introduce responsible sourcing, quarterly business reviews, sustainability reporting and transparency, Capability Building, Supplier Engagement and Evaluation program. The company must go beyond legislation to benefit from ethical supplier networks. It is likely that the shareholders may resist this sustainability project because such programs might demand an investment without the promise of a related return. Hence, there is a need to integrate the ESG (Environment and social governance) performance into shareholder value. Beginning with the fundamental cash flow valuation computation, there is a need to decide an organization specific discount rate (Nassos, 2014). A company which does not follow ESG frameworks is likely to have a lower stock and resultantly a higher discount rate. On the other hand, a company following attractive ESG frameworks will be trading at a premium with the incr ease in institutional demand. This will then be reflected in a low discount rate. Now the company requires a methodology for relating its cost of capital to its ESG performance. When the companys management comprehends how ESG programs can impact its stock prices, it enables them to make efficient investment decisions. The senior management could be faced with a decision to invest in sustainability for improving some process. This might not lead to an acceptable ROI or IRR. However, the consequent rise in stock price displays a different and precise image of the shareholder value if the initiatives lead to a better perception of the companys efforts to work toward sustainability (Muldavin, 2010). Conclusion With the world cracking down on immoral and unethical supply chains, companies that can exhibit transparency and provide guarantee that there are no cases of environmentally and/or socially detrimental impacts in their supply chains are likely to pull ahead. References Cheng, M.M., Green, W.J. and Ko, J.C.W., 2014. The impact of strategic relevance and assurance of sustainability indicators on investors' decisions.Auditing: A Journal of Practice Theory,34(1), pp.131-162. Collier, P.M., 2015.Accounting for managers: Interpreting accounting information for decision making. John Wiley Sons. Cooper, S., 2017.Corporate social performance: A stakeholder approach. Taylor Francis. Dujon, V., Dillard, J. and Brennan, E., 2013. Social Sustainability: A Multilevel Approach to Social Inclusion. Routledge. Hickman, M., 2009. Primark faces new claims that it uses sweatshop labor. [Online]. Available through: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/primark-faces-new-claims-that-it-uses-sweatshop-labor-1833843.html. [Accessed on 21st August 2017]. Jacobsen, J., 2011. Sustainable Business and Industry: Designing and Operating for Social and Environmental Responsibility. ASQ Quality Press. McDougall, D., 2008. The hidden face of Primark fashion. The Guardian. [Online]. June 21st. Available through: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/jun/22/india.humanrights. [Accessed on 21st August 2017]. Muldavin, S., 2010. Value Beyond Cost Savings: How to Underwrite Sustainable Properties. Green Building FC. Nassos, G., 2014. How sustainability improves shareholder value. [Online]. Available through: https://www.greenbiz.com/blog/2014/09/11/how-sustainability-improves-shareholder-value. [Accessed on 21st August 2017]. Rodrigue, M., 2014. Contrasting realities: corporate environmental disclosure and stakeholder-released information.Accounting, Auditing Accountability Journal,27(1), pp.119-149. Vesty, G., Oliver, J. and Brooks, A., 2013. Incorporating sustainability impacts in capital investment decisions: Survey evidence.Melbourne: CPA Australia.

Saturday, November 30, 2019

ROE v. WADE Essays (693 words) - Sexual Revolution,

Name: Course: Title: Date: THE CURRENT NINE MEMBERS OF THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT 1.Antonin Scalia 1986-present 2.Anthony Kennedy 1988- present 3.Clarence Thomas 1991-present 4.Ruth Bader Ginsburg 1993-present 5.Stephen Bayer 1994-present 6.John G. Robert 2005-present 7.Samuel Alito 2006-present 8.Sonia Sotomayor 2009-present 9.Elena Kagan 2010-present CASES SUMMARY ROE v. WADE Roe (P), a pregnant single woman, brought a class action suit challenging the constitutionality of the Texas abortion laws. These laws made it a crime to obtain or attempt an abortion except on medical advice to save the life of the mother. Other plaintiffs in the lawsuit included Hallford, a doctor who faced criminal prosecution for violating the state abortion laws; and the Does, a married couple with no children, who sought an injunction against enforcement of the laws on the grounds that they were unconstitutional. The defendant was county District Attorney Wade (D). Roe and Hallford won their lawsuits at trial. The district court held that the Texas abortion statutes were void as vague and for over broadly infringing the Ninth and Fourteenth Amendment rights of the plaintiffs. The Does lost, however, because the district court ruled that injunctive relief against enforcement of the laws was not warranted. The Does appealed directly to the Supreme Court of the United States and W ade cross-appealed the district courts judgment in favor of Roe and Hallford. ISSUES IN THIS CASE INCLUDES Do abortion laws that criminalize all abortions, except those required on medical advice to save the life of the mother, violate the Constitution of the United States? Does the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution protect the right to privacy, including the right to obtain an abortion? Are there any circumstances where a state may enact laws prohibiting abortion? Did the fact that Roes pregnancy had already terminated naturally before this case was decided by the Supreme Court render her lawsuit moot? Was the district court correct in denying injunctive relief? The Court held that, in regard to abortions during the first trimester, the decision must be left to the judgment of the pregnant womans doctor. In regard to second trimester pregnancies, states may promote their interests in the mothers health by regulating abortion procedures related to the health of the mother. Regarding third trimester pregnancies, states may promote their interests in the potentiality of human life by regulating or even prohibiting abortion, except when necessary to preserve the life or health of the mother.The Supreme Court held that litigation involving pregnancy, which is capable of repetition, yet evading review, is an exception to the general rule that an actual controversy must exist at each stage of judicial review, and not merely when the action is initiated. The Court held that while 28 U.S.C. 1253 does not authorize a party seeking only declaratory relief to appeal directly to the Supreme Court, review is not foreclosed when the case is brought on appeal from specific denial of injunctive relief and the arguments on the issues of both injunctive and declaratory relief are necessarily identical.The Does complaint seeking injunctive relief was based on contingencies which might or might not occur and was therefore too speculative to present an actual case or controversy. It was unnecessary for the Court to decide Hallfords case for injunctive relief because once the Court found the laws unconstitutional, the Texas authorities were prohibited from enforcing them. HOW THE RULING IN THE CASE IMPACTS THE LIVES OF AMERICANS Roe has come to be known as the case that legalized abortion nationwide. At the time the decision was handed down, nearly all states outlawed abortion except to save a womans life or for limited reasons such as preserving the womans health, or instances of rape, incest, or fetal anomaly. Roe rendered these laws unconstitutional, making abortion services vastly safer and more accessible to women throughout the country. The decision also set a legal precedent that affected more than 30 subsequent Supreme Court cases involving restrictions on access to abortion. References: 1.http://articles.latimes.com/1989-06-18/books/bk-3553_1_linda-coffee-norma-mccorvey-untold-story 2.http://www.plannedparenthood.org/files/3013/9611/5870/Abortion_Roe_History.pdf

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

aslkdj Essays

aslkdj Essays aslkdj Paper aslkdj Paper but the Great Rift Valley served as an interior passageway. The Mediterranean and Red seas provided trade routes to places in southwest Asia and present-day Europe. Resources Spur Trade Africa had a lot of minerals. Salt, gold, iron, and copper especially were valuable, so many continents wanted to trade with Africa. Transportation was generally hard ecause of the vast deserts, but there was the introduction of the camel, which were called the ships of the desert. Camel caravans created new trade networks, because they could carry heavy loads and go without water. The Sahara Dries Out Neolithic villages started to appear in the Sahara. Back then, (about 5500 B. C. ) the Sahara was a well watered area covered with rich grasslands and savanna. In about 2500 B. C. , the climate change slowly dried the Sahara. Desertification destroyed thousands of acres of cropland and pastureland. The desertification caused migration for people who were seeking new ways to maintain their life. The Bantu Migrations The migrations contributed to the diversity of Africa over thousands of years. The West African peoples spoke a variety of languages that came from one common language. This common language is called Bantu, and this migrations is called the Bantu migrations. As they migrated to Southern Africa, the Bantu speakers spread their skills in farming, ironworking, and domesticating animals. The existing cultures merged with those of the Bantu speakers. Nubia Rivals Egypt Trade led to contact between Nubia and Egypt, but also rivalry between who would control the trade in the region. By 1500 B. C. , Nubians were under the Egyptians control, and so the Nubians adapted many of the Egyptians traditions. They modeled palaces and pyramids based on the Egyptians and worshipped Egyptian gods. By 1100 B. C. , the power of the Egyptians were declining and Nubia gained independence. In about 730 B. C. , the Nubian king Piankhi conquered Egypt. However, in 670 B. C. , Nubia was invaded by the Assyrians from Southwest Asia. The superior iron weapons of these invaders were unmatchable, so the Nubian armies were forced to retreat from Egypt and they returned to the South. Meroe Masters Trade and Iron By 500 B. C. , Assyrian invaders forced Nubian rulers to move their capital from Napata to Meroe. Meroe eventually dominated both the Niles north-south trade route and animal skins, perfumes, and enslaved people to the Mediterranean world and Southwest Asia. Meroes location was one of the main reasons why it was a successful center for trade. The regions resources were also important. They were rich in iron ore. They had large quantities of timber, which fueled the smelting furnaces. This produced the iron tools and weaponry needed to feed, control, and defend the kingdom. Splendor and Decline Even though Nubia absorbed a lot of things from Egypt, Nubia later followed its own course. After gaining independence from Egypt, Nubians worshipped their own gods, including Apedemak, a lion-headed warrior god. The artistic styles reflected a greater sense of freedom that the Egyptians. The Nubians also created their own system of writing, but it is still yet to be deciphered. After the reign of 0th King Natakamani and Queen Amanitere in the first century A. D. , the golden age of Nubia dimmed, and finally was overwhelmed by King Ezanas armies from the kingdom of Axum to its outh. Phoenicians Build Carthage As Nubia was thriving along the Nile, Carthage was rising as a great North African power. Founded by Phoenician traders as a port on the Mediterranean coast, Carthage came to dominate western Mediterranean trade. From 800 B. C. to 146 B. C. , it forged an empire that stretched from present-day Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco to southern Europe. Trade rivalries between Rome and Carthage eventually led to a series of conflicts called the Punic Wars. At the end of the Third Punic War, the Romans literally burned Carthage to the ground. Rome Rules North Africa After defeating Carthage, Rome gained control of the narrow strip of North Africa between the Mediterranean coast and the Sahara. There, they built roads, dams, aqueducts, and cities. The Romans developed and utilized North Africas farmlands as a granary, a region that produces much grain, to feed the Roman empire. North Africa provided soldiers for the Roman army, including Septimius Severus who would later become an emperor of Rome. Under Roman rule, Christianity spread to the cities of North Africa. In fact, St. Augustine, the most influential Christian thinker of the late Roman Empire, was born in present-day Algeria. From A. D. 395 to A. D. 430, Augustine was bishop of Hippo, a city located near the ruins of ancient Carthage. Islam Spreads Into Africa In the 690s, Muslim Arabs conquered and occupied the cities of North Africa. By the early 700s, the Berbers, a largely nomadic North African people, were conquered. Christianity was eventually replaced by Islam as the dominant religion of North Africa under Arab rule. Also, the Arabic replaced Latin as its language. Over time, Muslim traders from North Africa carried Islam to West Africa. Trading centers like that of the city of Gao developed over time throughout Africa as rade extended beyond village borders. Some of the medieval cities became wealthy international commercial centers. Between 800 and 1600, several powerful kingdoms won control of these prosperous cities and their trade. Trade in Sahara Salt was a highly prized item because it was important to human health, but very rare. The earliest development of trade in the region was tied to agriculture. Surplus Leads to Trade As the Sahara dried out, some Neolithic people migrated southward into the savanna, an area of grasslands that was good for farming. By A. D. 100, settled agricultural illages were expanding, especially along the Senegal and Niger rivers around Lake Chad. This expansion from farming villages to towns was due to the development of trade. Farming villages began to produce a surplus, more than they needed. They traded their surplus food for products from other villages. Gradually, a trade network linked the savanna to forest lands in the south and then funneled goods across the Sahara to civilizations along the Mediterranean and in Southwest Asia. From West Africa, caravans crossed the Sahara carrying leather goods, kola nuts, cotton cloth, and enslaved people. From North Africa, Arab and Berber merchants brought silk, metal, beads, and horses. Trading Gold for Salt Two products, gold and salt, dominated the Sahara trade. Gold was widely available in the area of present-day Ghana, Nigeria, and Senegal. In exchange, West Africans traded for an equally important commodity, or valuable product, salt. The Sahara had an abundance of salt. As farming and trade prospered, cities developed on the northern edges of the savanna. Soon strong monarchs arose, gained control of the most profitable trade routes, and built powerful kingdoms. Ghana: The Land of Gold The ancient kingdom of Ghana was located in the fertile, broad V made by the Niger and Senegal rivers in present-day Mali. From there, the king controlled gold-salt trade routes across West Africa. The two streams of trade met in the marketplaces of Ghana, where the king collected tolls on all goods entering or leaving his land. So great was the flow of gold that Arab writers called Ghana the land of gold Cities of Splendor The capital of Ghana was Kumbi Saleh, which was made up of two separate walled towns some six miles apart. The first town was dominated by the royal palace, which as surrounded by a complex of domed buildings. Here, in a court noted for its wealth and splendor, the king of Ghana presided over elaborate ceremonies. To his people, he was a godlike figure who administered Justice and kept order. In the second town of Kumbi Saleh, prosperous Muslim merchants from north of the Sahara merchants helped make Kumbi Saleh a bustling center of trade. Influence of Islam Muslim merchants brought their Muslim faiths with them to the kingdom of Ghana. The king hired them as counselors and officials, and gradually incorporated some of their military technology and ideas about government. Muslims also introduced their written language, coinage, and business methods. Although Islam spread slowly at first, in time, a few early dwellers adopted the religion. However, most of the Soninke people continued to follow their own traditional beliefs. About 1050, Almoravids, pious Muslims of North Africa, launched a campaign to take control of Ghanas trade routes. They eventually overwhelmed Ghana, but were unable to maintain control over their extended empire for long. In time, Ghana was swallowed up by a rising new power, the West African kingdom of Mali. The Rise of the Germanic Kingdoms The Germanic tribes that conquered parts of the Roman empire included the Goths, Vandals, Saxons, and Franks. Their culture was very different from that of the Romans. They were mostly farmers and herders so they had no cities or written laws. Instead, they lived in small communities governed by unwritten customs. Kings were elected by tribal councils. Warriors swore loyalty to the king in exchange for weapons and a share in the plunder taken from conquered people. Between 400 and 700, these Germanic tribes carved Western Europe into small kingdoms. The Franks Extend Their Power One of these kingdoms was that of the Franks. In 486, Clovis, king of the Franks, conquered the former Roman province of Gaul, which later became the kingdom of France. He ruled his new lands according to Frankish custom but preserved much of the Roman legacy. Clovis took an important step when he converted to Christianity, the religion of his subjects in Gaul. Not only did he earn their support, but he also gained a powerful ally in the pope, leader of the Christian Church of Rome. A Muslim Empire Threatens Europe As the Franks and other Germanic peoples carved up Europe, a new power was merging across the Mediterranean. The religion of Islam began in Arabia in the 600s. From there, Muslims, or believers in Islam, created a new civilization and built a huge and expanding empire. Leaders of the Church and of Christian lands from Palestine to North Africa to present-day Spain. When a Muslim army crossed into France, Charles Martel rallied Frankish warriors. At the battle of Tours in 732, Christian warriors triumphed. To them, the victory was a sign that God was on their side. Muslims advanced no farther into Western Europe, although they continued to ule most of what is now Spain. This nearby Muslim presence remained a source of anxiety to many European Christian leaders. In time, however, medieval Europeans would trade with Muslims, whose learning in many areas exceeded their own. In 768, the grandson of Charles Martel became king of the Franks. He briefly united Western Europe when he built an empire reaching across what is now France, Germany, and part of Italy. Also named Charles, he became known as Charlemagne, or Charles the Great. Charlemagne spent much of his 46-year reign fighting Muslims n Spain, Saxtons in the north, Avars and Slavs in the east, and Lombards in Italy. His conquests reunited much of the old western Roman empire. A New Emperor of the Romans In 799, Pope Leo Ill asked Charlemagne for help against rebellious nobles in Rome. The delegation that Charlemagne sent to Rome arrested Leo Alexander Greek Artistic Influence Alexanders conquests helped spread Greek culture throughout the empire. The influence of the assimilated culture is frequently found in art such as the sitting Buddha who is portrayed with flowing robes in the classical Greek style.

Friday, November 22, 2019

The Marshall Plan - Rebuilding Western Europe After WW2

The Marshall Plan - Rebuilding Western Europe After WW2 The Marshall Plan was a massive program of aid from the United States to sixteen western and southern European countries, aimed at helping economic renewal and strengthening democracy after the devastation of World War II. It was started in 1948 and was officially known as the European Recovery Program, or ERP, but is more commonly known as the Marshall Plan, after the man who announced it, US Secretary of State George C. Marshall. The Need for Aid The Second World War severely damaged the economies of Europe, leaving many in a parlous state: cities and factories had been bombed, transport links had been severed and agricultural production disrupted. Populations had been moved or destroyed, and a tremendous amount of capital had been spent on weapons and related products. Its not an exaggeration to say the continent was a wreck. 1946 Britain, a former world power, was close to bankruptcy and had to pull out of international agreements while in France and Italy there was inflation and unrest and the fear of starvation. Communist parties across the continent were benefiting from this economic turmoil, and this raised the chance Stalin could conquer the west through elections and revolutions, instead of having lost the chance when Allied troops pushed the Nazis back east. It looked like the defeat of the Nazis might cause the loss of the European markets for decades. Several ideas to aid the rebuilding of Europe had been proposed, from inflicting harsh reparations on Germany- a plan that had been tried after World War I and which appeared to have failed utterly to bring peace so wasnt used again - to the US giving aid and recreating someone to trade with. The Marshall Plan The US, also terrified that communist groups would gain further power- the Cold War was emerging and Soviet domination of Europe seemed a real danger- and wishing to secure European markets, opted for a program of financial aid. Announced on June 5th, 1947 by George Marshall, the European Recovery Program, ERP, called for a system of aid and loans, at first to all nations affected by the war. However, as plans for the ERP were being formalized,  Russian leader Stalin, afraid of US economic domination, refused the initiative and pressured the nations under his control into refusing aid despite a desperate need. The Plan in Action Once a committee of sixteen countries reported back favorably, the program was signed into US law on April 3, 1948. The Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA) was then created under Paul G. Hoffman, and between then and 1952, over $13 billion worth of aid was given. To assist in coordinating the program, the European nations created the Committee of European Economic Cooperation which helped form a four-year recovery program. The nations receiving were: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and West Germany. Effects During the years of the plan, receiving nations experienced economic growth of between 15%-25%. Industry was quickly renewed and agricultural production sometimes exceeded pre-war levels. This boom helped push communist groups away from power and created an economic divide between the rich west and poor communist east as clear as the political one. The shortage of foreign currency was also alleviated allowing for more imports. Views of the Plan Winston Churchill described the plan as â€Å"the most unselfish act by any great power in history† and many have been happy to stay with this altruistic impression. However, some commentators have accused the United States of practicing a form of economic imperialism, tying the western nations of Europe to them just as the Soviet Union dominated the east, partly because acceptance into the plan required those nations to be open to US markets, partly because a great deal of the aid was used to purchase imports from the US, and partly because the sale of ‘military’ items to the east was banned. The Plan has also been called an attempt to persuade European nations to act continentally, rather than as a divided group of independent nations, prefiguring the EEC and the European Union. In addition, the success of the plan has been questioned. Some historians and economists attribute great success to it, while others, such as Tyler Cowen, claim the plan had little effec t and it was simply the local restoration of sound economic policy (and an end to vast warfare) which caused the rebound.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The negative effect of divorce parents on child physics Essay

The negative effect of divorce parents on child physics - Essay Example Parental attachment during early stages of human life is very important because children tend to learn from their environment. Psychosocial theories argue that parental attachment during early developmental stages influence trust that a child develops in his or her late life stages. Evidently, a divorced family does not have time left for childcare because one of the parents is already missing. Social theorists have observed that effects of anxiety caused by divorce at early stages in a child’s life usually reoccur at adolescent stage. Divorce influences the attention a child would get from his or her parents. Many divorces cases usually tear mental ability of a child because divorce forces a child to make a choice yet they are still young and inexperienced about events in life (Shapiro & Lambert). Studies have indicated that many children of divorced parents had difficulties in choosing whose side they should take during their parental split cases. Researcher argue that divorce traumatizes children whose families were stable than children in dysfunctional families. Children lose confidence in relationship leading to marriage because they encounter different scenes with girlfriends or boyfriends of the parents. This on-and-off attitude makes children to develop a feeling that no attachment is secure. Social theorists have observed that emotions which children develop after their parental split has an effect in the later life. Divorce can lead to financial constraints to a child, which might lead to termination of his or her educational life. Studies have indicated that some parents who split are unable to meet their expenses and the expenses of their children (Shapiro & Lambert). This affect education and other essential things that a child was getting before break up. However, government has instituted policies which at protecting a child at the event

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

In what ways does Kathryn Bigelow undermine the conventions of action Essay

In what ways does Kathryn Bigelow undermine the conventions of action cinema Use Point Break as your example and be sure to incorporate the discussions of critics that were assigned to read - Essay Example The scenes which include skydiving are greatly done to make one wonder how Bigelow managed to shoot these scenes at the time (Benson-Allott 3). Point Break is considered an unconventional film due to the pair of actors that Bigelow employed. During the 80’s and the early 90’s, action film were considered to employ more male masculine actors. The likes of Arnold Schwarzenegger, Steven Segul, Claude Van Damme, Sylvester Stallone, and Chuck Norris. The action film genre was characterized by huge and masculine figures during this period. The likes of Jet Li and Tom Cruise were lighter, smooth, faster action figures. In Keanu Reeves and Patrick Swazey, Bigelow managed to use Point Break in the transformation of Hollywood’s action film from masculine figures to smooth, intelligent crime busters (Benson-Allot 4). Sean Redmond, makes three claims about Katherine Bigelow and Point Black that shows her an unconventional approach to action film. While most critics look at Bigelow’s approach to film as Political, genetically transgressive and feminist, Point Break did not reflect the radical approaches of ideology that Bigelow employed in The Hurt Locker (2009) and the most recent Zero Dark Thirty (2012). In Point Break, Raymond sees Bigelow as founding a new subculture of FBI in action film. Raymond insists that Bigelow showed her political ideology in Point Break. Although the scripts of the movie already existed before Bigelow became the director, it was hard to imagine that the likes of Keanu Reeves and Swazey would make the set (Redmond 4). Redmond sees Bigelow as a radical because in Point Break, the film does not follow the political order which valued lifestyle and counter-culture values. The subculture of thieves who are surfers, led by Bodhi is exalted in the work. The FBI ethos are abandoned by the main character, John Utah, when he is undercover. He is drawn into the life style of this surfer criminal gang.

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Comparing Properties of Trig Functions Essay Example for Free

Comparing Properties of Trig Functions Essay The properties of the 6 trigonometric functions: sin (x), cos (x), tan(x), cot (x), sec (x) and csc (x) include the domain, range, period, asymptotes and amplitudes. The domain of a cosine and sine function is all real numbers and the range is -1 to 1. The period is 2Ï€, and the amplitude is 1. They have no asymptotes. The domain of tangent is all real numbers except for Ï€2+kÏ€. The range is all real numbers and the period is Ï€. Tan has no amplitude and has asymptotes when x= Ï€2+kÏ€. The domain of a secant function is all real numbers except for Ï€2+kÏ€. The domain of a cosecant function is all real numbers except for kÏ€. The range of both is (-∞.-1]U[1,∞) and the period is 2Ï€. Secant has asymptotes when x=Ï€2+kÏ€. Cosecant has asymptotes when x=kÏ€. They have no amplitude. Cotangent’s domain is all real numbers except for kÏ€. The range is all real numbers and the period is Ï€. It has no amplitude and has asymptotes when x=kÏ€. In an inverse function, the x coordinate, or the domain, and the y coordinate, the range, switch places. Since only one to one functions have inverses, we take the interval -Ï€2 to Ï€2, which contains all the possible values of the sine function. Now, the new domain is [-Ï€2, Ï€2], while the range stays the same. We then switch the domain and the range, so the domain and range of arcsin (x) is [-1,1] and [-Ï€2, Ï€2]. For cosine, the interval [0,Ï€] contains all possible values, and the range is still [-1,1]. To find arcos (x) we invert the domain and range again, to get [-1,1] as the domain and [0,Ï€] as the range. For arctan (x), the interval (-Ï€2, Ï€2) includes all possible values. The range still remains all real numbers. Exchanging the domain and range gives us all real numbers as the domain and (-Ï€2, Ï€2) as the range. As you can see, the properties of the six trig functions have many similarities and the inverse trig functions’ domain and range can be obtained with the one to one property of inverse functionsÃ'Ž

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Essay --

Mekanism is a San francisco-based creative digital agency that is founded in 2000 by Tommy Means. Mekanism is derived from a company named Complete Pandemonium. Means saw a big opportunity of the internet for a great media platform that was not being deployed and understood by people and company back in 2000. Means started to grow his view to an independent integrated creative production studio to develop the branded content outside traditional marketing communication channels. Means aimed the mission to place the web media at the center of all advertising, and to make marketing more effective among all the other platforms. Immediately the agency was founded as an independent entity, he added three partners. Pete Caban as a head of digital, Ian Kovalic as an executive creative director, and Jason Harris as an executive producer. Pete Caban leads technology development, new media initiatives and business operations. Focusing mainly on projects surrounding emerging content platforms, Caban directs the technical development of Mekanism’s client campaigns by leveraging the industry’s latest innovations to deliver targeted content to the widest base. Ian Kovalic brings an artistic and creative background in design, interactive and animated storytelling. As executive creative director, he oversees most of the design execution across commercial, web and branded entertainment. Jason Harris leads the strategy and production of branded entertainment campaigns. His core focus is fostering Mekanism’s position as the premiere storyteller for emerging media. Harris represents a unique mix of strategy, management and production expertise. He works attentively with brands to help make hit content, develop community platforms, and enhance reach a... ...Super bowl, Mekanism continued engagement with the audience, with the contests where hundreds of thousands additional fans came to watch the spot frame by frame and hunt for planted easter eggs. Average times on Pepsi.com was unbelievable, 4 minutes and 35 seconds. The program garnered press eventually every outlet from USATODAY, to the New York Times to the Today Show. Through paid, owned , and earned media, it received over 5.5 billion impressions. In the end, Mekanism created a Fan-made film that looked stunning, and delivered on the creativity and passion of its audience which generated buzz long before and after the Super Bowl. But most importantly, Makanism amplified the voice of the now generation, and Pepsi put its marketing focus on the people who really matter, its consumers. http://youtu.be/a6YjAWU6_Qw>

Monday, November 11, 2019

Marketing Smart Water Topic

Marketing Plan Topic:Due Week One Complete this form and submit it to the Week 1 Marketing Plan Dropbox. Your instructor must approve your idea, and will give you feedback and suggestions if you need help. You have several options when choosing a product or service for your marketing plan. Consider choosing a new product for a new company (your own) or creating a new product for an existing company. Perhaps you would want to do a product extension of an existing product. You might consider a different approach to marketing an existing service.You can target consumers or businesses. You may choose a product or service offered by your employer or your own business, or one from another organization. Ultimately, to maximize your learning experience, choose a product or service in which you have an interest and about which you would like to see your product or service come to the marketplace. Make sure there is information available about the industry and target marketing of the product o r service you choose. MARKETING PLAN TOPIC Your Name: Product or Service Idea:SmartWater Is your product or service offered by: __X__an existing company? ____a new company imagined for the assignment? Explanation: Glaceua is the maker of smartwater, vitaminwater and vitaminwater zero. Who do you think is the target audience? (Remember you will need research to confirm this. ): Their main target are people who enjoy healthy food and are aware of what they are putting into their bodies. Customer’s buy Smart Water for â€Å"what’s not in it†, which is a major selling point for Glaceau.Are similar or competitive products or services available? List or briefly describe a similar product or service: (If your idea has no precedent in the marketplace, consider another idea). Spring water is the direct competitor as it is less expensive and easily accessible since supermarket chains are now manufacturing their own brand of spring water. Also, there is still the competiti on of water fountains and water filters which are both used to this day. How will your product or service differ from competitors?What is your distinctive competitive advantage? To distinguish their product from spring water, the company created the term â€Å"Smart Water† and bottled it in graphically appealing proprietary packaging under its trademarked brand name, Glaceau. Glaceau Smart Water has claimed its rightful place as having the lowest measurement of total dissolved solids (i. e. metals and minerals) of any water on the market. Do you have questions for your instructor? Do you feel I will have enough sources for this product.

Saturday, November 9, 2019


It gets far too complicated to keep tabs on all four. I also recommend that traders choose one of the majors because the spread is the best and they are the most liquid. I personally follow only USED/CHEF because it moves the most every day. Foundation #2: Follow and understand the daily Force News and Analysis of the professional currency analysts. Even though this system is based solely on technical analysis of charts, it is important to get a birds-eye view of the currency markets and the news that affects the prices.It Is also Important that you know and understand what the key technical ‘support' predicted level to buy (where currency pair should move up on the charts), resistance s a predicted level to sell (where the currency pair should move down on the charts). Fortunately, all the best Force news and analysis is offered free on the Internet. Here is what you should do first: *While you are reading the daily news and technical analysis, write down on a piece of paper w hat direction the analysts are saying about the major currency pair you are following and the key support and resistance levels for the day. A. Go to foreknows. Mom and you will find rah news and analysis on the spot FAX markets. The site will give you the big picture of how the economic calendar ND central banks affect the currency markets. A great resource. B. Then go to festered. Com and click on the ‘Top Force Reports'. Here there is a wonderful listing of all the major daily currency analysis and forecasts with support and resistance and direction forecasts. C. Click on currency. Com and go to ‘Today's Market Research' and there you will find more excellent analysis on the Major Currency pairs. Another great Force Portal. D. Wry. Monterey. Com E. Free Force trading forum: www. Respiratory. Net F. Comprehensive listing of everything, related to the Force Markets: www. Engorge. Com/resource/glossary. SP Foundation #3: Only get into a trade when the FPS technical indic ators say when. Always trade with stop losses! It is important when you are trading Force, to be disciplined and to stick to a plan. Don't Just trade your ‘gut' feeling. Use the technical indicators outlined and always enter in stop losses on every trade. Foundation #4: Practice makes perfect. As they say, there is no substitute for hard work and diligence. Practice this system on a demo account and pretend the virtual money is your own real money.Do not open a live trading account until you are profitable trading on a demo account. Stick to the plan and you can be successful. Foundation #5: Trade with a DISCIPLINED Plan: The problem with many traders is that they take shopping more seriously than trading. The average shopper would not spend $400 without serious research and examination of the product he is about to purchase, yet the average trader would make a trade that could easily cost him $400 based on little more than a â€Å"feeling† or â€Å"hunch. † Be s ure that you have a plan in place BEFORE you start to trade.The plan must include stop and limit levels for the trade, as your analysis should encompass the expected downside as well as the expected upside. Foundation #6: Cut your losses early and Let your Profits Run: This simple concept is one of the most difficult to implement and is the cause of most traders demise. Most traders violate their predetermined plan and take their profits before reaching their profit target because they feel uncomfortable sitting on a profitable position. These same people will easily sit on losing positions, allowing the market to move against them for hundreds of points in hopes that the market will come back.In addition, traders who have had their stops hit a few times only to see the market go back in heir favor once they are out, are quick to remove stops from their trading on the losing more then a predetermined amount! The mistaken belief is that every trade should be profitable. If you can ge t 3 out of 6 trades to be profitable then you are doing well. How then do you make money with only half of your trades being winners? You simply allow your profits on the winners to run and make sure that your losses are minimal.Foundation #7: Do not marry your trades The reason trading with a plan is the #1 tip is because most objective analysis is done before the trade is executed. Once a trader is in a position he/she tends to analyze the market differently in the â€Å"hopes† that the market will move in a favorable direction rather than objectively looking at the changing factors that may have turned against your original analysis. This is especially true of losses. Traders with a losing position tend to marry their position, which causes them to disregard the fact that all signs point towards continued losses. Foundation #8: Do not bet the farm Do not over trade.One of the most common mistakes that traders make is leveraging their account too high by trading much larger sizes than their account should prudently trade. Leverage is a double-edged sword. Just because one lot (100,000 units) of currency only requires $1000 as a minimum margin deposit, it does not mean that a trader with $5000 in his account should be able to trade 5 lots. One lot is $100,000 and should be treated as a $100,000 investment and not the $1000 put up as margin. Most traders analyze the charts correctly and place sensible trades, yet they tend to over leverage themselves.As a consequence of this, they are often forced to exit a position at the wrong time. A good rule of thumb is to never use more than 10% of your account at any given time. Trading strategy: TRENDS Trend is simply the overall direction prices are moving UP, DOWN, OR FLAT. The direction of the trend is absolutely essential to trading and analyzing the market. In the Foreign Exchange (FAX) Market, it is possible to profit from UP and Down movements, because of the buying and selling of one currency and against the other currency e. G. Buy US Dollar Sell Japanese Yen ex. Up Trend chart. SUPPORT Price supports are price areas where traders find that it is difficult for market prices to penetrate lower. Buying interest in the dollar is strong enough to overcome. Selling interest in the dollar keeping prices at a sustained level. RESISTANCE Resistance is the opposite of support and represents a price level where Selling Interest overcomes Buying interest and advancing prices are turning back. 3 50% Retrenchment. There are also 33% and 66% Retrenchments. 4 5 Step 1: Prepare your charts The Force Profit System uses 2 technical indicators to show you when you should enter and exit a trade.These are called the Parabolic SARA and the Exponential Moving Average 10, 25 and 50. A. Setup a 60 minute USED/CHEF chart. This is my favorite currency pair to trade because it swings up and down the most. You can choose any major pair you like though. B. Choose Parabolic SARA as an indicator. Click on displa y when it shows you the . 02 and . 2 acceleration factor and constant. C. Choose Moving Averages, Exponential 10, 25 and 50. D. Click on Exponential, then enter 10 in the Period box, then K E. You should have the Parabolic SARA and the three Ma's 10, 25 and 50 in different colors on your charts.Step 2: When to Enter and Exit your Trades This is what your chart should look like. These are the FPS indicators that I use to trade. The EMMA 10 should be in pink, the EMMA 25 should be in yellow, and the EMMA 50 should be in blue. The Parabolic SARA is charted with dots above and below the line. When to ENTER a trade The FPS indicators tell you when to get into a trade when the EMMA ten crosses the 25 and the 50. If the ten crosses the 25 and 50 up from the bottom, you enter your trade ‘long and ‘buy.If the 10 cross the 25 and 50 down from the top you go ‘short' and ‘sell'. Make sure that when you get into your trade that the Parabolic SARA is on the bottom when you go long and on the top when you go short. In the example above, on October 1 5th, there was a great opportunity to go long on the USED/CHEF pair, where I circled and labeled enter. Notice how the EMMA 10 crossed up the 25 and 50 and the Par SARA was on the bottom. *If you are trading the hourly charts like in the above example, make sure that the 15 min charts Parabolic SARA is going the same way.Simply click on the arrow beside the 60 min and change it to 15 min and your studies will automatically adjust to the new time frame. Never trade against the 15 min Parabolic SARA! When to EXIT a trade 6 The best time to exit a trade is when the price crosses back down through all 3 Ma's USED/CHEF on the 20th crossed back down all three indicators where I circled EXIT. If o held this position all week, you could have made a 275 pip profit. With 1 lot traded on a standard account this would have been approximately $1780. 00 in profit. With 2 lots–$3560! A mini account would have prof ited you $178 and $356 respectively.If you profited 275 pips with ERR/USED or GAP/USED you would have made approximately $10 per pip, which you would have made $2750 with one lot and $5500 with 2 lots traded. Not bad for one week! Where to Set the Stop Loss When you open a demo account you will find on the online trading platform that you will always be able to enter a stop order level that will automatically stop out your read at the level you set, or a limit order that will close your position at your desired profit level. Using the FPS means that you should always set your level Just below the EMMA 50.As your position moves in the right direction, you should move your stop accordingly. Then if your position moves against you, you would have locked in your profits by moving up your stop order. It is important that if the prices cross back over the 10, 25 and 50 that you close your position. Here is an example of how the FPS works on the 15 min charts: Using the FPS on the 15 min c harts is more volatile, but it will give you more trades on n intra-day basis. On the example above you could have sold the USED/CHEF ‘short' at 1. 5060 and closed your position at 1. 000 for a 60 pip profit. One note of caution trading the 15 min charts: there are often times when the price will Whipsaw' back and forth, up and down through the 10,25 and 50 moving averages. If this happens soon after you entered a trade, close your position and wait till the moving averages fan out and the Parabolic SARA signals strong. 7 ‘Scalp' Trading the Min Charts System Scalp trading is when you use the 1 to 5 min charts to ‘scalp' small profits. These trades usually only last a few minutes to an hour. You can use the FPS to scalp trade Force on the 1 min charts.Here is how: Instead of using the 10, 25, 50 Ma's like we did in the above examples, put on the 25, 50 and 100 Ma's. Often it is best to scalp trade at the London Open (3:MAMA EST) or the New York open (8:00 AM EST) b ecause that is generally when the currency pairs will start to move more in one direction. When the actual price crosses all three indicators, you enter your trade, long or short. If the price crosses down through the 100 EMMA, enter short, if the price crosses up through the 100 EMMA go long. Make sure that you book a 5-10 pip profit.That is a $50-$100 dollar profit on a regular account, and more if you bought more lots. Don't try to hang on to you winning position too long, because the price can whipsaw back and you can lose. Take your 510 pip profit as soon as you can. Here is an example on the 1 min charts: price crossed up through the 100 EMMA and at 10:45 you could have closed your position (little circle) and made a 10 pip profit. Then again the price crossed back down the 100 EMMA at 1 1 EST. You could have sold the Yen short (big circle) and then ten minutes later made another 10 pip profit. Little circle) The Setup: Open up your trading platform and open a chart. Set the i nstrument to the currency pair of your choice. Set the chart pattern to filled candle. Set the timeshare to 30 minutes Set up a moving average line in your indicators menu. -set period to 11 days Now that you have your chart setup properly, go ahead and set up your normal indicators that you use for reassurance and entrance/exit, etc. I use an MAC, a volume indicator, and Bollixing bands, but everyone has their own theory on what works and why, and everyone has a reason why your indicators don't work when they seem to work Just fine for you!Now before I explain what you are doing with this setup I loud like you to set up the chart as I have indicated, and take a good solid look at the history of the data. Do you see any telltale signs yet, or have a clue as to what the point of the setup is yet? If you do not, do not worry or feel inferior, as this has slipped past some of the best. I happen to be great with numbers and have a strong background in analysis, so I was able to pick up on this trend mostly by dumb luck but good fortune and a keen eye for detail. Now that you have stared at your screen looking for it, I'll explain myself.What you are looking for is the moving average line, or herein referred to as the MA, that you et up on your chart to cross through the price line. You are probably saying to yourself, â€Å"This happens like every hour or so, what gives? â€Å". Well, it does happen fairly often, maybe not that drastically, but it does. The key point is where the MA crosses the price line. You don't need to worry or care about it crossing the thin peaks of the high/low lines on the candle, but you want to concentrate on it crossing through the middle of the wide, filled part of the candle, the openness prices.And further yet, it must cross in around the middle of this center section. If it crosses at the top or OTTOMH of the candle centre area, than you can pretty much disregard the trade. It may be profitable, but not worth the risk. Stick with the center of the central region and you will be much safer. Now, when the MA indeed crosses the price line through the centre of the central wide part of the candle, a trade signal is triggered. You should try and wait at least on the radar and its not about to recant its previous move.The chart is set to the 30 minute timeshare, so generally wait 30 minutes or so, unless the market suddenly takes a quick shift in that direction. Then you can open the position to catch the wing. Now to determine direction. If the MA moves from above the price line to below it, the trade is going to be long. And likewise, if the MA moves through the candle from below the price line, the trade will be short. This can be verified by checking your indicators that you have set up to corroborate with your MA.To better clarify this direction idea, if after the cross the price is below the MA, the price is most likely dropping or SHORT. If the after the cross the price is above the MA, the price is consid ered to be rising and the trade is LONG. Another important factor to consider. While an MAC is a great too to determine market direction and activity, in this case it helps to build on the strength of the trend that we are pointing out here. If the MA crosses the price line from above to below, so that the trade we have forecasted is long, we can compare this with the MAC.If the MAC average lines are above the zero line, then you can expect a large climb. If the trade was reported as short, and the average lines on the MAC screen were below the zero line, you could expect to a see a rather large drop. When I say large drop or gain, I am speaking of 75, 100, 150 point gains. This is not to say that if, n a long trade for instance, the average lines on the MAC are BELOW the zero that you will NOT see a gain. It generally will provide a gain, but of 20, 30, or maybe even 50 points. Where you exit the trade is up to you and how much you can tolerate and are willing to risk.If you feel c omfortable taking 30 points and are okay with yourself if it does end up going to 150 points above your buy price, then good for you. If you are a thrill-seeker and go for the 150, I wish you all the best of luck! You may or may not need it. That's it! It's Just that simple! If you move back through the history of the chart and kook at when and where the MA crosses the price line, you can see for yourself that it seems to catch every big movement, and almost all of the smaller ones. This set can be used on the minute chart for mid-term trades and further yet on the daily chart for longer term setups.Make sure that you are using your regular technical indicators to monitor market activity and ensure the trade is on target. If you are looking to enter a short and your MAC says long, or the 30 minute chart is oversold, you are asking for trouble. You need checks and balances with any system to eliminate as much of the margin of error as possible. The Force Profit System is specifically designed for use with the 1, 5 or 10 minute charts, with the goal of taking 5-20 pip profits per trade?closing bad trades out using tight stops, or hedging any losing trades.The following steps will show you how to do this. Set up your charts: USED (or whatever currency pair you like) , 5 min, line and the chart will appear on the right hand side. Maximize the chart to fill the right hand side. Now if you want to make the price line darker, you can right click right on the price line and a properties box will appear. You can adjust the thickness of the line. Now we will add the Moving Averages to the chart. We will be using the Exponential Moving Average 10, the Bollixing Band Exponential Set at 20, and the Exponential Moving Average 50.Click on Moving Average on the left hand side under Studies. Set your first MA to 10, close, exponential and you can make it red with line width 2 under the Color/Style Tab. Click on Moving Average again and add your MA 50, close, exponential and ma ke this line blue with line width 2. Now we will add 3 more indicators below the chart to help us confirm the trend, and to help us identify exact entry and exit buy or sell signals. The following indicators give us insight into the momentum, direction and overbought/sold indicators.Used along with the Exponential Moving Averages, Parabolic SARA and Bollixing Bands?these indicators can be very helpful to the day trader. MAC Histogram. Read about how to trade the MAC Histogram here: http:// www. Incredibleness. Com/technical/Mac_histogram. HTML Relative Strength Index (RSI) Read about how to trade the RSI here: http://www. Incredibleness. Com/technical/ relative_strength_index. HTML Slow Stochastic Read about how to trade the Slow Stochastic here: http://www. Incredibleness. Com/ technical/slow_stochastic. Tm Now add these studies to your charts.Under Studies click on MAC Histogram and use the default settings (9,Exponential, 12, 26, Close, Exponential) and set the line width to 2. Y our study will automatically open under your chart. Under Studies click on Relative Strength Index and set it to 14 and set the line width to 2. Your study will automatically open under your chart. Under Studies click on Slow Stochastic and set it to (533, Exponential) and make the %K line blue with line width 2, and the %D line red with line width 2. Your chart, with all the studies on it should now look like this (example of USED/CAD 10 in chart): I clicked on the zoom in button a couple of times. *tip: If you are in a winning trade, you can move your stop to your entry level, so that if your trade moves against you, the platform closes your position without any losses. **tip: You should be comfortable setting your stop Order at 15-20 pips. If you can't handle a 15-20 pip loss, then you are need to trade smaller amounts. This will help you from over leveraging your trading account. Limit Order: Is a price you enter into an open position for the trading platform to automatically cl ose your position at a profit. For example, you might set your limit order at a 15 pip profit.If the exchange rate never hits that level, then the Order doesn't get filled. We will be looking at 3 different ways to day trade the Force Markets. In a trading session, you may look for 1 or more of these approaches. The 3 techniques are as follows: Trade the Breakout Trade the Trend Trading Tops and Bottoms Micro Trading Before we look at these trading approaches, let's answer a question that is often asked by new traders. When is the best time to trade? Because the Force Market is open rash a day, and traded on a global scale, the question to ask is, When should I trade?.The good news is that no matter what time zone or hemisphere you live in globally, there are always good opportunities to trade. The three major trading ‘sessions' are as follows (all in Eastern Standard Time): 1 . New York open 8:00 AM to 4:00 PM 2. Japanese/Australian open 7:00 PM to 3:00 AM 3. London open 3:00 AM to 8:00 AM **Often, the best times to trade is at the beginning 3-5 hours of the above mentioned opening times, because the major currency pairs tend to move the most in a particular direction. The first Transformed. Com trading technique we will look at is he easiest to recognize on the charts.We will call it ‘Trade the Breakout'. You can use the 5, 10 or 15 minute charts for this method. The indicators on the 5 minute charts are the fastest. Practice until you feel comfortable with the time frame that suits you best. 1. Trade the Breakout The principle behind trading the breakout is to enter a trade when the price ‘breaks out' of a tight range, because often it tends to keep moving in the same direction. We use our Bollixing Bands on our charts to spot this trading opportunity. The second Transformed. Com trading technique uses the same principles, but is less extreme.