Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Effect of Temperature on Enzyme Activity Free Essays

Exploring the Effect of Temperature on Enzyme Activity Almost all substance responses that happen in living beings are catalyzed by compounds. Numerous elements in a cell’s domain influence the activity of a chemical. In this examination, you will structure a test to decide the impact of temperature on a protein catalyzed response. We will compose a custom exposition test on Impact of Temperature on Enzyme Activity or then again any comparable theme just for you Request Now You will finish a whole lab review utilizing the CHS LAB REPORT FORMAT. Key Question How does temperature influence the pace of a protein catalyzed response? Materials †¢Raw liver†¢Forceps †¢Petri dish†¢Labeling tape and pen †¢Dropper pipette†¢Ice shower †¢0. 1% hydrogen peroxide solution†¢3 thermometers †¢Liver puree†¢Warm-water shower †¢25-mL graduated cylinder†¢Clock or watch with second hand †¢5 50-mL beakers†¢Paper towels †¢Filter-paper plates Part An: Observe the Catalase Reaction 1. Put on cover and wellbeing goggles. Use forceps to put a little bit of crude liver in an open petri dish. Utilize a dropper pipette to put a drop of hydrogen peroxide arrangement on the liver. Alert: Hydrogen peroxide can be aggravating to skin and eyes. On the off chance that you spill any on yourself or your garments, wash it off quickly and tell your instructor. See what occurs. RECORD in note pad. Liver contains the catalyst catalase, which separates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to water (H2O) and oxygen gas (O2). At the point when hydrogen peroxide is separated by catalase, air pockets of oxygen gas are discharged. 2. With your teacher’s direction, select the best possible hardware and innovation to gauge catalase activityâ€a channel paper plate. . To gauge the action of catalase, utilize a graduated chamber to put 25 mL of hydrogen peroxide arrangement in a 50-mL measuring glass. 4. Use forceps to plunge a channel paper circle in liver puree. Spot the channel paper circle on a paper towel for 4 seconds to expel any abundance fluid. 5. Utilize the forceps to put the channel paper circle at the base of the recepticle of hydrogen peroxide arrangement. Watch the ch annel paper circle, and record the quantity of seconds it takes to buoy to the highest point of the fluid. RECORD in note pad. Part B: Design an Experiment 1. Utilize your perception and information to build up a TESTABLE QUESTION and about how temperature will influence the rate at which catalase separates hydrogen peroxide. RECORD in journal : TQ in When†¦Will position; 2. Compose a BACKGROUND segment of the lab by doing some examination about chemicals. Utilize section An of this lab, and the data in segment 2-4 of the reading material to assist you with composing this. Make certain to incorporate the Biological noteworthiness (for what reason does it make a difference how catalysts work; for what reason is it basic to free the cell of H2O2; for what reason is compound particularity critical to the speed of the response), the Content of the class (what is the enzymatic response; what are the items, reactants, and proteins engaged with the substance response; what do you hope to happen to the speed of the response when temperature is controlled; what do proteins do in concoction responses), and the Link to this lab (in what manner will you test this in lab; what are the mv, rv, and cvs in the lab). RECORD in note pad in section group. 3. Compose a HYPOTHESIS to incorporate your expectation of what will occur in the lab. RECORD in scratch pad: HYP in IF†¦THEN†¦BECAUSE position. 4. Plan a test to test your theory. Your exploratory arrangement ought to incorporate PROTOCOL (materials and method in pictures) just as any proper controls and replications (redundancies). Make certain to recognize all controlled, reacting, and controlled factors in your exploratory arrangement. Incorporate any essential security precautionary measures and wellbeing gear in your arrangement. . As you plan your insightful methods, allude to the Lab Tips box on p. 55 of your course book for data on showing safe works on, settling on astute decisions in the utilization of materials, and choosing gear and innovation. 6. Build a DATA table like the one underneath in which to record the consequences of your analysis. Perform you explore ONLY after you have acquired your teacher’s endorsement of your arrangement. RECORD information in your note pad. Information Table Temperature (oC)Time (seconds)Observations Trial 1Trial2Trial3 Control Temperature: 7. Make a diagram of the aftereffects of your examination. Plot temperature on the x-pivot and the variable by which you estimated catalase movement on the y-hub. RECORD the chart in your scratch pad under the ANALYSIS segment. Clarify this diagram. 8. Make a chart of class brings about the ANALYSIS area. Clarify this chart. Notwithstanding your diagram, compose the remainder of the ANALYSIS area of the lab, utilizing the CHS LAB REPORT FORMAT. Remember the accompanying for your scratch pad: Explain what ought to have happened Identify what ought to have happened including the connection between the time it takes the plate to buoy to the top and the measure of catalase action; the ideal temperature for the catalyst; the shape change of proteins when not in homeostasis and how that changes the viability of the chemical. Clarify what really happened †¢Summarize information Explain why these outcomes happened by fusing foundation data †¢Again, utilize the data from the foundation area (protein structure, catalyst work, homeostasis, temperature, pH, and so on) to clarify the genuine outcomes. Contrast real with anticipated outcomes (depict and clarify likenesses and differencesâ€use numbers) Use straightforward measurements to disclose information †¢Be sure to utilize the two boundaries spoke to (coldest, most smoking, quickest, slowest) and make certain to utilize midpoints (gathering and class) compute percent change if fitting State likely human mistakes and how these influenced the information †¢What did turn out badly, what could’ve turned out badly, clarify Explain how the analysis could’ve been done any other way †¢Did this lab convention really test the testable inquiry? Were the controlled factors really controlled? †¢What could’ve been controlled better? †¢Was the test control really controlled? 9. Compose a CONCLUSION for the lab, again alluding to the CHS position. RECORD in your note pad and make certain to incorporate the accompanying: †¢Re-express the speculation and show whether it was bolstered or dism issed †¢Did this convention answer the principal question? †¢What controlled variable(s) could be changed to more readily address the essential inquiry? (Portray in any event two distinct ones) Step by step instructions to refer to Effect of Temperature on Enzyme Activity, Essay models

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Sarcasm in Pride and Prejudice free essay sample

Mockery in Pride and Prejudice Criticizing Social Class â€Å"It is a reality generally recognized, that a solitary man possessing a favorable luck, must be in need of a wife† (1). The initial sentence of Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice doesn't just contain the novel’s significant subject of marriage, yet in addition presents a significant complex gadget the writer has been utilizing all through the entire book: Sarcasm. For additional argumentation, one would need to characterize the importance of â€Å"sarcasm†. The Free Online Dictionary gives a few meanings of mockery: 1. A cutting, regularly amusing, comment planned to wound. 2. A type of mind that is set apart by the utilization of mocking language and is expected to make its casualty the butt of disdain or derision. Two principle viewpoints must be taken a gander at in detail, once more: the referencing of â€Å"ridicule† and the significance of â€Å"wit†. â€Å"Ridicule† is the component that is joined to a large portion of the characters in Pride and Prejudice and can honey bee found in the character’s own conduct or it is pointed at in remarks of others. We will compose a custom exposition test on Mockery in Pride and Prejudice or then again any comparable theme explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page The significance of â€Å"wit† is considerably increasingly significant, as the Free Online Dictionary characterizes it as â€Å"the capacity to see and express in a keenly funny way the connection between apparently incoherent or divergent things. † Actually, Jane Austen is completely ready to deliver this sort of mind and uses it to create mockery as the novel goes on, as will be talked about later. As a peruser of Pride and Prejudice, the initial sentence may appear to be straight forward from the start sight and not the slightest bit doubtful. The need of persuading wedded is by all accounts normal and human. All things considered, by perusing on, one will discover Mrs Bennet, the mother of five youthful unmarried women, narrowing this first sentence to: â€Å"Oh! Single, my dear, no doubt! A solitary man of enormous fortune; four or 5,000 per year. What a fine thing for our young ladies! †, while revealing to her better half about a youthful very much settled man having moved to a close by home (1). This sort of changing the significance of a sentence or even entire entry into a mocking one, is basically the â€Å"wit† having been reported before. Having perused the entire story, a mindful peruser will have understood that Mrs Bennet is â€Å"a lady of mean seeing, little data, and questionable temper. At the point when she was unhappy she liked herself anxious. A mind-blowing matter was to get her little girls wedded; its comfort was visiting and news† (3). Subsequently, as of now the main sentence abruptly shows up in a wry tone in the event that we take in thought this â€Å"universally acknowledgement† rather appears Mrs Bennet’s own affirmation, or considerably more: her craving. One could contend that Mrs Bennet coming about presents a character that is exaggerated so as to be snickered about, as Kalil additionally states in her note on Pride and Prejudice. Anyway her status in the public arena and her day to day environment totally changes this view. As a caring mother, who has as a main priority, that her little girls will always be unable to recruit the house they live in, she normally would have no other idea than wedding her little girls to a man in â€Å"good fortune† who will have the option to bear the cost of a home for them two. This is likewise the motivation behind why Mrs Bennet doesn't worry about her second oldest little girl, Elizabeth, getting hitched to Mr Collins, her husband’s cousin and minister, who will recruit the house the Bennet family lives in. As a matter of fact, Mrs Bennet discovers Mr Collin â€Å"odious† (46), â€Å"hypocritical† (46) and a â€Å"false friend† (46), and in this way he would under no situation be a decent gathering for her Elizabeth, however the reality of him being the recruit of Longbourne, causes her to permit him to propose to Elizabeth. In reality, this shows individuals of the white collar class here and there should act peculiarly or even like a cartoon (Blumenroth. 006: 17) so as to ascend the social stepping stool. The characters in the story that are situated on a more elevated level of society, then again, are certainly introduced mockingly by the suggested creator herself, or even by centering characters in the story. Therefore one can say that Jane Austen presents characters of higher class in a snide manner so as to scrutinize the privileged. Starting with the character in the novel, who is most noteworthy on the social stepping stool: Lady Catherine De Bourgh. Being the little girl of a baron and the widow of Sir Lewis De Bourgh, make her ready to possess a sumptuous house, named Rosings. Woman Catherine particularly shows her self-important character in numerous sections of the novel: She knows about her higher position and along these lines accepts that she claims the privilege of amending everybody and controlling the lives of people around her (Ernst. 2008:23) Nevertheless, numerous entries can be discovered, which delineate how restricted Jane Austen was to the character she herself made, which she communicates trough mockery. The main perspective that stands apart by breaking down Lady Catherine is her conduct, which totally doesn't accommodate her high position. First presented by Mr Collins in part 14, she is depicted as following: The subject raised [Mr Collins] to more than expected seriousness of way, and with a most significant angle he fought that he had at no point ever seen such conduct in an individual of rank †such approachability and loftiness, as he had himself experienced from Lady Catherine. † (50) obviously, this depiction is being cen tered by Mr Collins and isn't a characterisation by the omniscient storyteller †the suggested creator. How him centering this depiction, impacts the picture the peruser gets of Lady Catherine, will be talked about later. In any case, Mrs Bennet concurs that this conduct of Lady Catherine is by all accounts â€Å"all extremely appropriate and civil†, and she includes that :†it is a pity that extraordinary women when all is said in done are not increasingly like her† (50). As Mr Collins proceeds, he adulates Lady Catherine’s assessment on young ladies because of their recognized birth being set apart by incredibly excellence (50). Taking in thought that Lady Catherine’s little girl is of a wiped out constitution, which keeps her from â€Å"making the advancement in numerous accomplishments† (51), it isn't just senseless, yet considerably progressively mocking of Lady Catherine discussing young lady in that manner. Her extremism makes her believe that birth-given position makes excellence, which is unknowingly mockingly remarked on, by Mr Collins. This is as of now the initial segment in the novel, which presents Lady Catherine in a wry way, in light of the fact that the peruser will later understand that Lady Catherine is an annoying and disagreeable individual and that her habits don't accommodate her economic wellbeing. Taking her awful habits in thought, likewise Mrs Bennet’s comment will unquestionably solid snidely. Moreover, to Lady Catherine’s conduct, which makes her high status effectively sketchy, she is simply the person who makes look significantly increasingly ludicrous. A key-section of this â€Å"self-destroying† activity is appeared in volume III, part 14, when Lady Catherine drops by Longbourne in the early morning to blame Elizabeth for spreading the report of wedding Lady Catherine’s nephew Mr Darcy. In this discussion, she blames Elizabeth for her status not being sufficiently high for her nephew of favorable luck, Mr Darcy, whom she proposed to wed her own girl. Unexpectedly, Lady Catherine doesn't just affront Elizabeth during this discourse, however much more, humiliates her nephew by blaming him for being crazy by proposing to a lady of Elizabeth’s class. She in this way scrutinizes his capacity to pick the correct lady to wed. This scene incorporates considerably increasingly mocking hits at Lady Catherine, which are introduced through Elizabeth’s answers and contentions. While Lady Catherine can hardly imagine how the gossip about her nephew and Elizabeth ought to the littlest record be valid, she by and by goes right to Longbourne to get some information about it face to face. As Elizabeth fittingly comments, the Lady would have never made this long way out to her home in the event that she was unquestionably secure with the marriage being difficult to occur. Woman Catherine, understanding that her apparently solid and vivacious appearance don't influence Elizabeth, at last cried in rage: â€Å" [†¦] I am nearly the closest connection he has on the planet, and am qualified for realize all his dearest concerns! † (271) At this purpose of the discussion, it becomes clear that Lady Catherine has an absolutely irregular meaning of â€Å"relation†. She asserts that she has a deep understanding of her nephew’s concerns, yet at the same time she needs to get some information about the purportedly marriage, rather than asking him straightforwardly or in any event, having been told by him ahead of time. She feels that being connected relatives makes her increasingly significant and considerably progressively near him as Elizabeth, whom he may be enamored with. This doesn't just show that Lady Catherine, the individual of most noteworthy status in the novel, can't assess her capacity and impact on individuals, yet additionally that she has a totally off-base picture of connections and sentiments. Another entry, prior in the novel, additionally shows how biased Lady Catherine is introduced. At the point when Elizabeth is welcomed by Mr Collins to right off the bat meet Lady Catherine at latter’s house, she is posed a few inquiries about her family and her training. With regards to discuss her four sisters, who have all been raised by her mom without the assistance of a tutor, Lady Catherine is confused about it: â€Å"Has your tutor left you? † â€Å"We never had any governess† [†¦] â

Ethics paper on pollution

Morals paper on contamination Morals paper on contamination Morals Paper On Contamination Created Countries Have a Higher Obligation to Combat Climate Change Arranged by Mohammad Ul Haque Id:0147217 MG660-Strategic Marketing Arranged for Educator Michael Altamiran Accommodation date: 10/15/2014 15 October 2015. Educator Michael Altamirano Rulers Graduate School Monroe College Subject: Letter of transmittal (Ethics Paper) Dear Sir, It is a tremendous delight for me to submit you Ethics Paper titled Pollution. I have attempted my best to make this report useful. In any case, in spite of my best exertion their may stay a few defects in the report. I trust and implore that the missteps will be benevolently pardoned. Ultimately I would be grateful by and by you don't mind offer your reasonable guidance on exertion. Earnestly yours, Mohammad Mahfuz Ul haque ID No.:0147217 MBA Program Official Summary The fundamental driver of the climatic change is because of contamination. Contamination is the fundamental purpose behind this worldwide climatic change and this misfortune. Contamination is a major issue and it must be handled by the joined exertion of numerous countries. Contamination can be handled by numerous methods , most of the contamination originates from a portion of the Developed and Developing nations. Contamination is comprehensively grouped into four sorts, Land contamination, Water contamination, Noise contamination and Air contamination. Every one of these contaminations add to the worldwide climatic change. These are the significant contaminations that cause numerous misfortunes. Climatic states of the world relies upon different factors, for example, precipitation, water flows, sea tides, storms and mugginess. Climate specialists accept that every one of these variables that impact the climate conditions are influenced by contamination. So the climate states of a n ation is influenced by its contamination. A few specialists recommend that contaminations additionally influences the yields and timberlands that are basics for keeping up the climate conditions. Because of contamination climate examples and precipitation designs change immensely and this achieves disappointment of yields and even dry season now and again. For a solid horticulture in a nation the climatic conditions and the precipitation of that nation must be steady , it ought not change immensely. Consequently climatic changes brought about by contamination influences the farming of a nation and in this way in a roundabout way influencing the individuals of that nation. It has been evaluated by a review that the food we eat , water that we drink and the air that we inhale are dirtied. There are about 20% of individuals are passing on of contamination. Contamination is brought about by toxins , they are the specialists that cause contamination. Poisons are discharged by numerous methods, for example, enterprises, houses, transport wreck , autos, copying of oil based goods and dumping of squanders in the open space. Toxins are of various sorts, they can be broken down in water, spread through air or get kept in the dirt and they all reason contamination in the entirety of their structures. Poisons that are discharged by ventures are a few times poisonous and can influence the living things. A portion of the harmful toxins that are discharged by the enterprises are zinc, lead, nitrous, oxide of nitrous, oxides of sulfur, peroxides and radioactive squanders. Contamination and the worldwide climatic conditions can be handled by just by co-activity among different nation. The greater part of the nations have a band on discharging certain unsafe synthetic concoctions into the air , these kind of band must be made a law and they should be carefully actualized. All the businesses must check their outflows for any harmful poisons and they should channel them before discharging their gases into the environment. Each nation must follow the strategy of REUSE,REDUCE and RECYCLE. Chapter by chapter guide 1. Presentation: 2. Types and Causes of Pollution Air Pollution Water Pollution Soil contamination Commotion contamination Radioactive contamination Warm/heat contamination Light contamination 3. Impacts of Pollution: Condition Degradation: Human Health: A dangerous atmospheric devation: Ozone Layer Depletion: Barren Land:

Friday, August 21, 2020

Bullfighting in spain Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Bullfighting in spain - Essay Example Osborne took the test and designed a twenty three foot, 9,000 pound bull. It turned into a moment milestone. The bull, in the same way as other different ads around the Spanish open country, where part of an unpredictable social showcase that pulled in outsiders and kept the country’s personality. It was ordered among other social marvel, for example, Escorial, the Acueduct, Giralde, and the flamenco show which are all significant vacation destinations in Spain (Garry, 28). Today there are more than 90 Osborne bulls around the nation filling in as land imprints and vacation spot everywhere throughout the nation. During administrative take action against the significance of the Osborne bull since it quit being related with the refinery any longer, it was loved as a promotion or a vacation spot, yet additionally a genuine portrayal of the Spaniards’ culture of bull battling. The way of life is so wide spread around the nation thus profoundly implanted inside the general public that go similarly as emblazoning on garments, mugs among other beautifying objects. Local mascots can be found around the nation giving the game the acknowledgment and energy it requires. All things considered, bullfighting has not been acknowledged with great enthusiasm since it very well may be viewed as creature pitilessness since the bull is â€Å"tortured† before it is executed. Creature activists everywhere throughout the world have concocted reason after explanation have the training prohibited in Spain. In Catalonia, for example, they consider this conduct unseemly and are as a rule challenging it at their Spanish Embassy. They gang a moral test demanding that no human with their constraint of profound quality would experience the procedure of bull battle and come out sound (Bradley, 34). Before the bull is placed into the ring or corrida it needs to experience merciless three stages, otherwise called tercio, to prepared it for the approaching exhibition. In the initial step,

Tuesday, August 4, 2020

Understanding Work-In-Progress (WIP) When Analyzing Financial Statements

Understanding Work-In-Progress (WIP) When Analyzing Financial Statements For someone with very little to no background in accounting or financial matters, making business decisions based on the results of reviewing and analyzing financial statements and other financial reports can be quite intimidating. In fact, that is the reason why you hear about a lot of company executives leaving the job in the hands of staff members who they think have the right qualifications and knowledge.For example, they’ll have their accountants do the reviewing â€" more formally, it is referred to as “financial statements analysis â€" and then have them interpret the results and make recommendations in layman’s terms. In short, in business language that they can understand.That’s all well and good, but don’t you think it would be better if you knew a little more about the basics of financial statements analysis? It doesn’t mean that you should know the often too intricate processes and methodologies of analyzing financial statements, but only to get the basic idea or the gist of things.To a certain extent, this will let you keep a handle on most things, maintaining a degree of awareness about how the business is really performing, instead of simply and blindly going along with what your accountants tell you. That way, you will also feel more confident in your decisions. Plus, it also minimizes the risks of you being swindled by those who advise you on these matters, and surely you want to make sure of that, don’t you?Granted, financial statements analysis is not something that can be easily learned. There are simply too many factors to consider and a lot of elements at play. One of the elements that often give rise to confusions in the review of financial statements is the Inventory account.It’s certainly not much of a problem in a merchandising concern where, often, there is only one type of inventory maintained. It becomes a bit complicated in a manufacturing concern, because there are several inventories to consider, mainly depending o n the stages of completion, including Finished Goods Inventory and Work-in-Progress.The confusion is definitely going to be greater if we also consider the Raw Materials Inventory and other inventories of indirect supplies and materials used in the production process.But don’t worry. We don’t want to overwhelm you with too much information all at once, so we’ll take things one at a time. By the end of this discussion, you will understand Work-in-Progress in the context of financial statements analysis. WHAT IS WORK-IN-PROGRESS?Work-in-Progress, or WIP, is a component of the Inventory account, which is reflected in the Asset section of the Balance Sheet (or the Statement of Financial Position). You may have seen other companies use the account title “Work-in-Process”. They’re the same thing.WIP is clearly different from the other types of inventory for manufacturing concerns. Raw Materials Inventory includes the direct materials that are still in their unaltered form, prior to being placed into production; WIP includes the materials that have been subjected to processing, regardless of the degree or extent. Finished Goods Inventory, on the other hand, includes those that have been completed, after undergoing the entire production process, and are now ready for sale; WIP are still unfinished and certainly not yet ready to be sold.Production Cost (or Manufacturing Cost) refers to the total costs put into the production or manufacturing process in order to complete products that have been partially worked on or completed. It includes all the costs that have been incurred at various stages of the production process, and has three elements:Raw materials, or the materials directly used in the production processDirect labor, or the wages of worker or staff directly involved in the production processAllocated overhead (e.g. indirect materials, indirect labor, and other overhead expenses, such as utilities and depreciation directly traceable to the production process)At the end of the reporting period, the amount corresponding to the cost of goods that have been placed into process, but are not yet completed, is the ending inventory of the WIP. This is the figure that will be included in the Inventory account presented in the Balance Sheet.But you have to be careful here. In financial statements analysis, the WIP may also refer to the portion of the total Production Costs that was actually used in the production process. Instead of an asset account, it will form part of the cost of goods manufactured, which will appear in the Income Statement. The formula to arrive at that figure is:WIP Inventory, beginning balanceXXXAdd: Costs put into process     Raw Materials UsedXX     Direct LaborXX     Factory OverheadXXTotal Production CostXXXLess: WIP Inventory, ending balance(XXX)WIP UsedXXXConfused yet? You’d understand this better if we go over the production process for a bit.WHERE DOES WIP FIT IN THE PRODUCTION PROCESS?Depending on the product being manufactured and the business processes and practices of the company, the production process may be simple and straightforward, or it may be complex and composed of more than a few stages or phases. At every stage of the production process, costs will be added, and these costs will be accumulated in the WIP.Once the raw materials and even the indirect materials have been placed into the production process, they cease to be raw materials and become WIP. However, since they have not yet fully gone t hrough the entire production process and remain unfinished, they still aren’t classified as Finished Goods.You can then say that the WIP is indicative of the flow of manufacturing costs from one production stage to the succeeding stages. Now how does WIP figure into the process of analyzing financial statements? We’ll get to that soon. But first, we have to establish what businesses should aim for with regards to WIP.WHAT SHOULD BUSINESSES AIM FOR WITH RESPECT TO WIP?As much as possible, retail and merchandising businesses want to have a reasonable balance in their Inventory accounts. Not too large, but not completely zero, either. This same goal applies to WIP, which directly relates to the production process of the company.Manufacturing companies are more concerned with keeping its production at optimal levels. Production management that aims to keep things at such optimal levels means that the firm should put effort in minimizing its WIP.Why is that? Shouldn’t you aim for a higher amount to appear in the Balance Sheet? Not necessarily, considering that the accounts and components have varying implications.The main reason why you should keep your WIP at minimal levels is to keep the associated costs low. You se e, WIP, or any inventory for that matter, requires storage and warehousing. While awaiting completion, they will take up floor space in your warehouse, and will also require the use of various utilities to “preserve” them until such time that they can be processed further for completion. Your warehouse will utilize electricity, and you may have to spend on manpower costs to maintain them and even keep them secure.What if you don’t store them and, instead, keep them in the assembly line? Well, that is even worse, because it means that you have WIP in queue, and it is holding up the flow of work in the production process. The likely effects are backlogs and slow production rates, which can result to bigger problems when you are unable to meet a high demand from customers.Further, this means that the cost is tied up in the inventory account. You won’t be able to invest those funds or use them for other business purposes while they are still tied up in WIP. If you have a high WI P, there is a large amount that you won’t be able to invest until they have been completed and sold.You’re going to understand this well when we go into analyzing the financial statements.WIP IN HORIZONTAL ANALYSISHorizontal analysis, which you may also know as trend analysis, involves comparing financial statement data over a series of reporting periods, with the intention to see the trend or pattern of financial information on operations of a business from period to period. The main concern is to note the increases or decreases, if any. The comparison may spark greater interest if there are obvious discrepancies or differences, prompting management and investors to look deeper into the operations, for the reason or cause of said differences.In the horizontal analysis of the Balance Sheet, the balances of the different accounts under the three categories â€" Assets, Liabilities and Stockholders’ (or Owners’, depending on the form of business) â€" are compared with that of t he balances of previous years to recognize trends and spot any irregularities.As we have already established earlier, WIP forms part of Inventories account, which is under the Current Asset heading in the Asset section. In some cases, the comparison will be made using the total figures of each period for Inventories, but it would be more accurate to compare the respective balances of the various components of the Inventories account.What can you tell if you employ horizontal analysis on WIP?An increase in the ending WIP inventory from period to period may indicatethat there is an increase in the demand for the company’s products, if Sales levels also show an upward trend;that the company is manufacturing more or faster than it can actually sell, if Sales levels are decreasing or remain relatively stable/constant; andthat the production process may be experiencing a slowdown and cannot complete products fast enough to meet deadlines, resulting to excess WIP inventory, if Sales leve ls show a downward trend.A decrease in the ending WIP inventory from period to period may indicatethat the company is not manufacturing enough products, or the production process is not fast enough to manufacture products, that will meet the demand; anda weakening in the demand for the company’s products, prompting management to revisit its production processes and marketing programs.WIP IN VERTICAL ANALYSISIf Horizontal Analysis involves the evaluation of a series of financial statements for more than one reporting period, Vertical Analysis focuses on the financial statement of a company for a single period. In this method, each line item of the financial statement is treated as a percentage of the whole.The purpose of this type of analysis is to determine the proportion of account balances. If it turns out that there is an abnormal disparity between the proportion of Current Assets and Non-Current Assets to the Total Assets, this is bound to prompt management to reassess how it utilizes its resources in its operations. You are likely to use this method when you’re comparing the financial data and performance of different companies, regardless of the difference in their sizes.For example, in the Balance Sheet, each line item is taken as a percentage of the Total Assets. Meanwhile, in the Income Statement, each expenditure and cost line item is taken as a percentage of the Total Sales.As an illustration, here’s an excerpt of the Inventories section of two different-sized companies in the same industry. Company ACOMPANY ACOMPANY BAmount (in USD)Amount (in USD)Raw Materials12,000 (4.3%)170,000 (9.1%)Work in Process26,000 (9.4%)240,000 (12.9%)Finished Goods11,000 (4.0%)260,000 (14.0%)Total Inventories49,000 (17.8%)670,000 (36.2%)Total Assets275,000 (100%)1,850,000 (100%)The above data, combined with results of analysis of the other line items and the various factors that may affect them, will give you more information on which company is performing better f inancially.This will provide a clearer and more accurate picture, rather than simply relying on the bottom figures (Total Assets, Total Sales, and Net Income).WIP IN FINANCIAL RATIO ANALYSISAlthough horizontal and vertical analysis methods are used often, there is no doubt that the most prefer to employ financial ratios in analyzing financial statement data. The preference is because these ratios easier and quicker to use, and they are applicable even when you are analyzing financial statement data over time, or among businesses within the same industry.Financial ratios are also more specific. If you want to know something about a company’s financial state, such as its liquidity or profitability, all you have to do is use the appropriate financial ratios.And yes, WIP also figures greatly when you use financial ratio analysis. Let’s go over some of the most salient points.Current RatioCurrent Ratio is a prime ratio used to measure a company’s liquidity, or its ability to quickl y convert its assets into cash when it is in the middle of a financial crisis, and still continue its operations.This ratio shows the relationship between your current assets and current liabilities. Do not forget that your WIP ending inventory balance is a component of your current assets. It is computed using the formula below. How it works:   Obviously, you’d want a high Current Ratio, such as 3:1 or 4:1, since this means you won’t have any trouble turning your current assets â€" even your WIP â€" into cash whenever you run into financial difficulties. This means you have more Accounts Receivables that you can collect on and Finished Goods Inventory that you can sell. You probably even have short-term marketable securities that you can quickly sell to raise some cash.Of course, this is not conclusive when it comes to inventories, which are not entirely liquid. The WIP, for example, cannot be sold immediately precisely because they are NOT yet completed and therefore they are NOT yet ready for sale. Unless, of course, the nature of the product allows it to be salable even when it is partially completed. For example, a manufacturer of electronics products may sell its partially completed units in its WIP to another company with similar manufacturing operations. That could work.That’s why you shouldn’ t take the Current Ratio at face value alone. You still have to dig deeper into the components. What if Inventories, particularly the generally-unsellable WIP, make up a very large part of Current Assets? Then it could mean that your company is not as liquid as you thought.Working CapitalWorking Capital serves as an indicator of your ability to meet your current obligations as they fall due. These current obligations include those that are usually incurred in the normal operations of the business, such as electricity bills and other utilities, salaries and wages, and payments on short-term loans.Working Capital     =     Current Assets â€" Current LiabilitiesHow it works: You’d definitely want to have a higher amount of working capital, since this means that you are in a better position to make your payments on time, as they fall due. With respect to WIP, Working Capital will tell you about the WIP Days, or the average number of days that you can afford to keep units or jobs i n progress before they are completed and delivered to customers.WIP Days     =     Total Current WIP Used / Total Production Cost x No. of DaysTo illustrate, let us say that, for the year, the total Production Costs add up to $3,000,000. Currently, the total WIP used amounts to $1,300,000, and you operate for 360 days in a year. By applying the formula above, the WIP Days is equal to 156 days.What does this mean? This means that units or jobs should be in progress for an average of 156 days. If you go beyond that, you might not be able to sell the finished goods because the customers looked elsewhere for another source. Therefore, you have to make sure the production process goes on smoothly, and that you are not taking more jobs or orders than you can take on.Inventory TurnoverInventory Turnover, or inventory turns, will show you how effective you are at managing your inventory levels. Take a look at the formula below. You might be wondering how WIP comes into play in this, since Inventory Turnover actually refers to the Finished Goods Inventory, and how it fares in comparison to your sales level during a specific period.Let me walk you through it. In the formula above, you have to get two figures. The Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) and the Average Inventories. The Average Inventories is easy enough, since you only have to take the average between the beginning and ending balances of the Finished Goods Inventory.It’s the COGS part that you have to pay closer attention to. COGS, by the way, is the equivalent of Cost of Sales in a retail business, referring to the cost of goods or products that were actually sold during the period.Finished Goods Inventory, beginning balanceXXXAdd: Cost of Goods ManufacturedXXXTotal Cost of Goods Available for SaleXXXDeduct: Finished Goods Inventory, ending balance(XXX)Cost of Goods Sold (COGS)XXXStill don’t see where WIP comes in? Be patient. In the computation, you h ave to have a separate computation to get your Cost of Goods Manufactured, which basically refers to the production costs that apply to the products that have been completed during the reporting period.WIP Inventory, beginning balanceXXXAdd:     Raw or Direct Materials usedXX     Direct Labor employed/usedXX     Allocated/Assigned OverheadXXTotal Manufacturing Costs IncurredXXXDeduct:                             WIP Inventory, ending balance(XXX)Cost of Goods ManufacturedXXXThere you go.How it works:   This ratio will tell you about your inventory management and sales performance. Generally, a high WIP used means a high Cost of Goods Manufactured, which will also increase your Cost of Goods Sold. Usually, this also means a high Inventory Turnover Ratio, which is preferred, since it may indicate strong sales performance. It may also be an indicator that you are not holding any excess inventory and incurring related inventory costs unnecessarily.If you take a look at the Balance Sheet and the Income Statement, there is no doubt that you will find more areas where WIP â€" be it the Inventory account or the WIP used or incurred during the period â€" will have an impact. In fact, it is safe to say that WIP has an effect on the net income or overall profitability of the company.WRAPPING IT UP…Through the analysis of financial statements, you will be able to see how important it is to also include the WIP in your inventory management and control policies and activities. After all, it is a critical component of the production process, and every movement will have an effect on your financial statements.