Sunday, January 26, 2020
Compare Traditional Model Of Sport Development Physical Education Essay In the essay one will compare and contrast the traditional model of sports development with Cote and Hays theory of socialisation into sport using data gathered from appropriate literature. One will critique each model and discuss how it is applied to a specific sport, drawing on strengths and weaknesses. The researcher will also use Cote and Hays theory and see how it reflects the current sports development agenda, critically evaluating it and drawing on other models of sports development to see if they further reflect the current agenda. Development Sport development models are there as a basis to provide some means of identifying the different roles and responsibilities for those involved in sports development, from the lowest to the highest levels of achievement (Hylton et al., 2002). The first continuum to be discussed is the Traditional sports development continuum (see figure 1.1), which Hylton (2002, p. 3) states that some argue is the clearest, locates development on a hierarchal basis from foundation, participation, performance and excellence. Excellence Performance Participation Foundation Figure 1.1 The Traditional sports development continuum. (Sports Council, 1988; Eady, 1994) Each level of the continuum compromises of 4 stages, firstly foundation focuses on the acquisition of basic skills e.g. Body literacy, Hand eye coordination, developing positive attitude to physical activity. The second stage Participation focuses on taking part in defined activities for a variety of reasons, recreation, health, fitness and fun. The third stage performance is a good club level and athletes/ players striving to improve through quality coaching, the highest level in the continuum focuses on achievement at the highest level e.g. International and elite players. The traditional sports development continuum has been further modified and refined to fit in with new policies and agendas, these are the House of sport Geoff Cooke (1996), and The active framework: Sport England (see figures 1.2 and 1.3.). Hylton and Totten (2002) explain that The House of sport model was built on the foundations of sport for all which has always been an ideal rather than a coherent realisable o bject. Figure 1.2. The House of Sport Geoff Cooke (1996) Figure 1.3 The active framework: Sport England When the researcher evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the continuum, one concluded a number of findings. Firstly the triangle shape is a simplistic model that shows the bottom to be broader, thus showing that the foundation level is bigger in terms of participation e.g. primary school children across the UK partake in sport or physical activity in school or in local athletics clubs. As the triangle gets narrow participation decreases, the weakness to the continuum would be that it is one dimensional, no indication to drop out or step down a level. The clearest strength to the continuum is that it is clear in what it takes to get to each level e.g. participation requires taking part in defined activities for a variety of reasons. The next model one will look at is the Cote Hays theory of socialisation into sport (see figure 1.4.). According to Cote and Hay (2002) young peoples socialisation into sport follows a general pattern: sampling, specialising and investing. The key features of the Sampling phase are that children participate in a range of sports, Macphail et al., (2003) state that a key feature of the sampling phase appeared to be an ongoing shifting of priorities as young people literally sample the sports available to them and that their key motivation is fun and enjoyment, and that the emphasis is on structured or deliberate play rather than training or deliberate practice. Cote and Hay define deliberate play as organised activities designed to provide enjoyment through active and pleasurable participation, Macphail et al., (2003) further support this by defining deliberate play as activities that are structured yet do not focus overly on technique. Deliberate practice involves activities specific ally designed to improve the current level of performance and are not inherently enjoyable (Macphail et al., 2003). According to Cote and Hay (2002) from the sampling phase, young people may either drop out of a sport, move into the recreation years or move into the specialising phase. The recreation years are where young people participate regularly in sports without aspiring to reach an elite level of performance while the specialising phase involves more deliberate practice and a reduction in the range of sports activities, According to Macphail et al., (2003) when people start specialising there is evidence to suggest that fun is more closely related to the excitement of competition and performing. From the specialising phase Cote and Hay suggest a young person has three options. The first is to drop out of a sport, the second is to enter what they call the recreational phase where sport is played relatively informally and for fun, and the third is the investment phase. Entry into the investment phase usually signals a focus on one activity and a commitment to intensive training and competitiv e success. These three phases of sport participation are outlined in Fig. 1.4. Figure 1.4. Cote and Hays Three Phases of sport participation. Source: Cote and Hay (2002a, p.488). Strengths of the Cote and Hays socialisation into sport model are that it accommodates a progression from the sampling phase to the specialising years and then to the investment/recreation phase, it also acknowledges that at any stage of involvement young people can choose to move to take part on a recreational basis or drop out (Macphail., et al., 2006). One considers a weakness to the model to be that it only considers children. When one compares the traditional sports development model with Cote and Hays theory of socialisation into sport, there are numerous differences. Where the traditional continuum is very direct and only has an arrow pointing upward, Cote and Hays theory shows that it allows movement freely between stages, particularly the investment years and recreational years. The traditional continuum does not show drop out, as the Cote and Hays theory shows that drop out can happen at any stage. The similarity between the two models is that it shows clearly what it takes to be at each specific level. There are numerous sports development agendas, one will discuss the key agendas and how Cote and Hays theory reflects on these. Participation in sport is the basis of all government policies, increasing participation in sport can have effects on the governments cross cutting agendas e.g. improving health. Cote and Hays theory reflects this as it caters for young people, increasing participation in young people can only have a positive effect on health agendas, Siedentops (1995) supports this as he suggests that junior participation in sport can achieve a public health goal, as does (sparling et al., 2000) they suggest that Physical activity has enormous potential for improving the health of the public. The key part of health issues is obesity amongst children, Evidence regarding the increased prevalence of obesity amongst children and young people in the UK is mounting (NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, 2002). As Cote and Hays theory considers childrens participation in sport and that the sampling phase is designed for deliberate play that provide enjoyment in a range of sports and activities, health will be improved in later life, as (Biddle et al., 2001) suggests that promoting physical activity in children is seen as important in encouraging them to adopt lifestyles which will be maintained into adulthood, thus lessening the risk of chronic diseases later in life, thus reducing pressure on the National health service. Developing wider community issues using sports and physical activity is widely used across the country, Long and Sanderson (2002) have proposed that community development approaches aim to mobilise local people and resources by enabling individuals and groups to develop through participation in sporting activity, which is therefore seen as playing a role in developing community identity and capacity to take action and change. Using sport to deal with community issues is one way of diverting children from a life of crime and drugs, the sampling phase caters for young people to diverse in a range of sporting activities, and by entering young people in as a means of reducing crime, can have benefits on society, an evaluation of the west Yorkshire sports counselling project (1991) supports this as it suggests using sport to reduce rates of re-offending by probation service clients, found that those who completed eight weeks or more of their sports counselling programme were significantly less likely to be re-convicted than a control group. Whilst reducing crime through sport, the regeneration of local communities will benefit Pack (1989) argued that sportcan, in conjunction with other social and economic policies, make a positive contribution to urban regeneration. Long and Sanderson (1996) conducted a survey amongst sports development officers and sports centre managers, they noted that while all our respondents were able to cite a range of benefits to individuals: they found it harder to identify those occurring at the community level, and when addressing the contribution to regeneration, were more likely to return to high level sport prestige facilities and elite performance (cups and Olympic medals). The responses relating to community development clustered strongly around interaction/cohesion/ community spirit, whereas those relating to urban regeneration tended to focus on civic pride and improving the profile of the city. This supports Pack (1989) statement and clarifies that urban regeneration can be improved through sports. Coaching is central to the development of sport at every level, with regards to cote and Hays theory, with the development of sports programmes designed to tackle wider social issues at the sampling phase and at the specialising and recreational years, the development of coaches is highly important. The Coaching Task Force Report (2002) explains that there will be a massive increase in after school sport and inter school competition creating an increased demand for sessional coaches on school sites. There is a growing demand for volunteer coaches at the grassroots level of sports to work with young people in their sampling years and in the investment years there will have to be increased commitment and skills from coaches at local, regional and national level to work with talented and gifted young people. Other Models of sports development are the Long term athlete development models, First LTAD Model, Balyi (1998), as shown in figure 1.5. Figure 1.5 LTAD Early specialization model The second LTAD model (2001), and the third LTAD Model (2003). The second model had been changed to consider late specialisation sports, such as athletics, combatitive sports, cycling, racquet, rowing and all team sports, the fundamental stage was added at the first stage to consider this. The third model considers changes to the late specialisation into sport and has a sixth stage as outlined below. Early Specialisation Four stage model: Training to train Training to compete Training to win Retirement/retaining Late Specialisation Six stage model: FUNdamentals Learning to train Training to train Training to compete Training to win Retirement/retaining When one considers if the LTAD Models cover the government agendas better than cote and hays one believes that the early specialisation and late models clearly define each stage of development more accurately. Whilst cote and Hays theory and LTAD is very similar, preference would be given to the LTAD as it clearly shows what age it takes to be at each level and at what ratio of training it takes to be at each level. This would help whilst comparing the agenda with the model, for example taking into account the age range of communities whilst creating initiatives. Conclusion The researcher has concluded a number of findings throughout the assignment, after critically evaluating the traditional sports development continuum and Cote and Hays theory of socialisation into sport one concluded that cote and hays theory further reflects sport and is more suited to sports development, as it allows room for drop out and movement between is stage. Whilst researching the current government agenda and how Cote and Hays theory reflects this one found evidence to show that current sports programmes are beneficial and important to improving health, decreasing obesity and health related issues later on in life. These programmes further help the governments attempt to use sport as a cross cutting agenda, as crime and drug use is decreased, this has proven to aid urban regeneration, by increasing community interaction, cohesion and community spirit. Coaching is improved at all levels of the cote and hays continuum, through sports programmes and this can only help future sporting talents as London 2012 is fast approaching.
Posted by Geri Howerton at 8:00 AM
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Computers have brought about a revolution across all industries. They have changed the face of society. They are no longer specialized tools to be used by specially trained people. They are ubiquitous and used in almost every sphere of life. Computers have changed the way we work, be it any profession. Therefore, it is only natural that the role of computers in education has been given a lot of importance in recent years. Computers play a vital role in every field. They aid industrial processes, they find application in medicine; they are the reason why software industries developed and flourished and they play an important role in education. This is also why the education system has made computer education a part of school curriculum. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s look at what role computer technology plays in the education sector. The advantages of computers in education primarily include: * Storage of information * Quick data processing * Audio-visual aids in teaching * Better presentation of information * Access to the Internet * Quick communication between students, teachers and parents * There are tools like spelling and grammar checker, thesaurus and dictionary, installed in the computer. Thus, it takes less time to proofread a written document * Also, there is no need to open up a dictionary book to look for meanings of words. * Typing is much faster than writing on a paper. * If there is a need for reorganizing the sentences or paragraphs, one can cut and paste and make the necessary changes. * In schools, computer education has been made compulsory to spread awareness about computers. As a matter of fact, computers have become a learning tool for children. Computers are a brilliant aid in teaching. Online education has revolutionized the education industry. Computer technology has made the dream of distance learning, a reality. Education is no longer limited to classrooms. It has reached far and wide, thanks to computers. Physically distant locations have come closer due to Internet accessibility. So, even if students and teachers are not in the same premises, they can very well communicate with one another. There are many online educational courses, whereby students are not required to attend classes or be physically present for lectures. They can learn from the comfort of their homes and adjust timings as per their convenience. Computers have given impetus to distance education. Computers facilitate effective presentation of information. Presentation software like PowerPoint and animation software like Flash among others can be of great help to teachers while delivering lectures. Computers facilitate audio-visual representation of information, thus making the process of learning interactive and interesting. Computer-aided teaching adds a fun element to education. Teachers hardly use chalk and board today. They bring presentations on a flash drive, plug it in to a computer in the classroom, and the teaching begins. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s color, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s sound, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s movement Ã¢â¬â the same old information comes forth in a different way and learning becomes fun. The otherwise not-so-interesting lessons become interesting due to audio-visual effects. Due to the visual aid, difficult subjects can be explained in better ways. Things become easier to follow, thanks to the use of computers in education. Computers enable access to the Internet which has information on literally everything. Computers enable storage of data in the electronic format, thereby saving paper. Memory capacities of computer storage devices are in gigabytes. This enables them to store huge chunks of data. Moreover, these deveices are compact. They occupy very less space, yet store large amounts of data. Both teachers and students benefit from the use of computer technology. Presentations, notes and test papers can be stored and transferred easily over computer storage devices. Similarly, students can submit homework and assignments as soft copies. The process becomes paperless, thus saving paper. Plus, the electronic format makes data storage more durable. Electronically erasable memory devices can be used repeatedly. They offer robust storage of data and reliable data retrieval. Computer hard drives and storage devices are an excellent way to store data. This was about the role of computers in education. But we know, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not just the education sector which computers have impacted. They are of great use in every field. Today, a life without computers is unimaginable. This undelines the importance of computer education. Knowledge of computers can propel oneÃ¢â¬â¢s career in the right direction. Computers are a part of almost every industry today. They are no longer limited any specific field. They are used in networking, for information access and data storage and also in the processing and presentation of information. Computers should be introduced early in education. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think I am making an overstatement in saying that computer education is as fundamental as learning English. Yes, it is. Conclusion: Computers have come a long way since the first unit was invented. With the advancements of hardware as well as software, we can now accomplish many, tasks such as typing papers, watching TV, editing videos, learning online and gaming. The world of computing has made our lives a lot more convenient. Without the invention and deployment of computers, there would be no social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter.
Posted by Geri Howerton at 4:24 AM
Friday, January 10, 2020
Startling Facts Regarding Chemistry Related Article Summary in Essay Samples Exposed Explain in what way the characters developed throughout the class of the story. The author utilizes substantial scientific proof to support her argument and supplies a personal opinion to emphasize the fundamental relevance of individual option. Likewise, he is optimistic regarding the state promise to clean the river. School Response Essay Writing isn't a breeze. Now you know how to compose a narrative summary, you have the liberty on what's going to be your writing style. Writing summaries is a typical practice in college. The New Angle On Chemistry Related Article Summary in Essay Samples Just Released Click Summarize and you'll secure a concise paragraph on the post, with just the principal points. Finding a considerable review of the guide will be just a click away from now on and the outcomes are instant so that you can always count on us. Write a summary and response essay dependent on the article which you were assigned. You have to thoroughly read through each article that may contain some bit of information you demand. In every easy statement or any formal dissertation, you always have the option to locate a summary. First of all, you will need to choose the essay topic. Although this essay is apparently carefully organized, it doesn't comply with the directions for the assigned task. Developing a summary and response essay can be a difficult undertaking. The paper has to be in APA format. Now you have the info you will need for your summary, it's time to begin your draft. Response papers permit you to do something which other assignments don't. Read your very first draft outloud. Only the fact you could skip all the measures necessary to summarize the text properly makes an on-line summarizer an absolute winner with regard to usefulness. It's merely a matter of further developments in the area that will bring automated text summary creation to the next level. You do not have to include background information concerning the author in our introduction. Besides repetition of ideas which you should avoid, get away also from using the exact same word in a sentence. If their methods do nor seem appropriate don't let the reach of their methods limit your pick of research design. What if there was a tool named Resoomer that may simplify your workload and boost your degree of production. On the flip side, human-aided machine summarization methods act in a reverse way. A summarizer tool may still be a big help when you've got to assess material to get ready for a test or exam. The rhetorical style within this type. Like if you're a content writer, it can be helpful for you because it permits you to finish your work easily and quickly. There are many writing sites today that provide paraphrase on-line tool at no cost. So, you're searching for very best paraphrase text tool. You will be sure to adore this internet article rewriter tool because it permits you to complete your work easily and quickly. At the moment, there are a lot of totally free article spinners that it is possible to observe all over online. Google, as an example, will recognize people are leaving your website soon after arriving if they perceive your website or blog is full of junk content. No two paraphrasing sites give the exact results so that it is all up to you to choose which site you're likely to utilize for your paraphrasing needs. The country's growing has been rather large.
Posted by Geri Howerton at 12:47 AM
Wednesday, January 1, 2020
Foreclosure, the process of claiming the defaulted property to cover the cost of an unpaid debt, has hit America like a tidal wave. Considered to be a crisis and a major factor in the poor economic situation of today, there is no doubt that the current state of the housing market and the influx in foreclosures across the nation has had a dire impact on the American economy since the beginning of 2007. Strategies, policies, action plans, and all other means of organizing a recovery have been attempted, but to no avail. Not even Congressional legislation was able to revive the stalwart economy (although the legislation was not specifically targeted toward foreclosure practices or policies). The plain and simple truth is that no matterÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Both organizations are similar, companies chartered by Congress and sold publicly, but both run against the traditional economic grain. The primary factor that reigns in private companies is risk, every move a company mak es has a risk of putting it out of business, and so they are forced to be responsible with the money of their shareholders. Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae bypass this by being backed by the government. Any organization backed by the government cannot fail unless the government fails, therefore allowing for more risk by the company. Unsurprisingly, this was exactly what the two mortgage companies did, by introducing adjustable rate mortgages to low income, and in some cases, no income debtors. These people had little means with which to pay off the mortgage, but they got the mortgage anyway. Eventually, the companies had to raise the interest rates, and the debtors got blasted. This set off the current mortgage/foreclosure crisis we find ourselves in today. While the cause of this crisis is easy to pinpoint, the solution cannot be condensed so easily. 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Posted by Geri Howerton at 9:11 PM